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Table 1 Studies on the effects of dietary supplementation on NAFs collected from healthy and breast cancer women

From: Nutrients and nipple aspirate fluid composition: the breast microenvironment regulates protein expression and cancer aetiology

Exogenous and endogenous compounds References
Estrogen and steroid hormones [18, 30, 42, 44]
Fibres [4, 25, 28]
Fruits and vegetables [10, 25, 53, 59]
 Carotenoids [911, 37, 53, 59]
 α-carotene [10, 25]
 β-carotene (trans- and cis- forms) [10, 25]
 Lycopene [7, 25]
 trans- and cis-lycopene [10]
 2,6-cyclolycopene-1,5-diol [7]
 Lutein [10, 25]
 Zeaxanthin [10, 25]
 α-Cryptoxanthin [10]
β-cryptoxantin [10, 25]
Vitamins [11, 25]
provitamin A [9]
vitamin E [9]
retinol [10, 11, 25]
tocopherol [10, 11, 25]
α– tocopherol [10, 25]
δ-tocopherol [10]
γ-tocopherol [10, 25]
Lactose [8, 19, 23, 24, 47, 48, 57]
Lipids [4, 9, 10, 24, 25, 2830, 42, 49, 63]
PUFA [49]
Cholesterol, epoxides and metabolites [10, 11, 17, 18, 25, 29, 31, 42, 4446, 50, 62]
Isoprostanes [10, 11, 18, 31]
Soy [22, 33, 45]
isoflavones [18, 45]
Genistein [33, 45]
Daidzein [33, 45]