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Table 6 Overview of human studies that demonstrate an association between extra-intestinal disease and compositional dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota

From: Intestinal microbiota in human health and disease: the impact of probiotics

Study material Population Analytical methods References
Atopic and allergic diseases
Faeces 27 Allergic children
36 Non-allergic children
Conventional culturing Björkstén et al. (1999)
Faeces (5 time points) 18 Infants who developed allergy
26 Infants who remained non-allergic
Conventional culturing Björkstén et al. (2001)
Faeces (2 time points) 76 Infants at high risk for atopic disease Conventional culturing
FISH
Kalliomäki et al. (2001)
Faeces (2/3 time points) 27 Infants with atopic dermatitis
10 Infants without atopic dermatitis
Conventional culturing
FISH
Kirjavainen et al. (2001)
Faeces 30 Children with atopic dermatitis
68 Children without atopic dermatitis
Conventional culturing Watanabe et al. (2003)
Faeces 957 Infants qPCR Penders et al. (2007)
Faeces 20 Allergic children
20 Non-allergic children
DGGE Štšepetova et al. (2007)
Faeces (3 time points) 10 Allergic infants
16 Non-allergic infants
qPCR Suzuki et al. (2007)
Faeces 37 Infants with atopic dermatitis
24 Infants without atopic dermatitis
TGGE
FISH/flow cytometry
Gore et al. (2008)
Faeces 15 Infants who developed atopic dermatitis
20 Infants who remained without atopic dermatitis
T-RFLP
TGGE
Wang et al. (2008)
Faeces (3 time points) 16 Infants who developed allergy
31 Infants who remained non-allergic
qPCR Sjögren et al. (2009)
Autism
Faeces
Stomach contents
Small intestine contents
13 Autistic children
8 Non-autistic children
Conventional culturing
16S rRNA gene sequencing
Finegold et al. (2002)
Faeces 15 Autistic children
8 Non-autistic children
qPCR Song et al. (2004)
Faeces 58 Autistic children
12 Non-autistic siblings
10 Non-autistic children
FISH Parracho et al. (2005)
Faeces 33 Autistic children
7 Non-autistic siblings
8 Non-autistic children
454 FLX titanium sequencing (16S) Finegold et al. (2010)
Diabetes type 2
Faeces 16 Type 2 diabetic patients
12 Non-diabetic individuals
DGGE
qPCR
Wu et al. (2010)
Faeces 18 Type 2 diabetic patients
18 Non-diabetic individuals
qPCR
454 FLX titanium sequencing (16S)
Larsen et al. (2010)
Rheumatoid arthritis
Faeces 51 Patients with early rheumatoid arthritis
50 Patients with fibromyalgia
FISH/flow cytometry Vaahtovuo et al. (2008)
  1. DGGE denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, FISH fluorescence in situ hybridisation, qPCR quantitative polymerase chain reaction, T-RFLP terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, TGGE temperature gradient gel electrophoresis