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Table 7 Details of studies performed to examine the effects of probiotic intervention on intestinal microbiota composition of healthy subjects determined with culture-independent methods

From: Intestinal microbiota in human health and disease: the impact of probiotics

Population Study groups (based on treatment) Study material Analytical methods Key findings References
Animals
Healthy rats (n = 30) Probiotic: B. lactis Bl and S. thermophilus
Prebiotic: FOS
Placebo: only carrier material
Caecum (tissue and contents) Conventional culturing
DGGE
Both prebiotic and probiotic group:
 ↓ Clostridia
 ↓ Bacteroides
 ↓ total anaerobes
Prebiotic-treated group:
 ↓ coliforms
 ↑ Bifidobacterium
Probiotic-treated group:
 ↑ diversity
 ↑ coliforms
Montesi et al. (2005)
Healthy mice (n = 16) Probiotic: L. casei
Probiotic: L. plantarum
Probiotic: mixture of L. casei and L. plantarum
Control: no treatment
Faeces
Intestinal tissue
DGGE
T-RFLP
Clone-library sequencing
Mixture-treated group:
 No significant effect on dominant microbiota composition
 Shifts in the diversity of Lactobacillus species
Fuentes et al. (2008)
Healthy fish (red tilapia) (n = 12) Probiotic: diet containing Pediococcus acidilactici
Placebo: normal diet
Intestinal contents Conventional culturing
DGGE
Probiotic-treated group:
 ↓ Species richness and diversity
 Transiently colonization by P. acidilactici
Ferguson et al. (2010)
Humans
Healthy adults (n = 10) Probiotic: milk powder containing L. rhamnosus DR20 Faeces Conventional culturing
FISH
DGGE
Probiotic-treated group:
 No significant effect on dominant microbiota composition
Tannock et al. (2000)
Healthy adults (n = 30) Probiotic: B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12
Prebiotic: GOS
Synbiotic: GOS and B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12
Faeces DGGE All groups:
 No qualitative changes in faecal Bifidobacterium communities
Probiotic/synbiotic-treated groups:
 Transiently colonization by B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12
Satokari et al. (2001)
Healthy children (n = 26) Probiotic: Yoghurt containing L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus and L. paracasei A
Placebo: pasteurised yoghurt
Faeces Conventional culturing
RAPD-PCR
DGGE
Probiotic-treated group:
 No significant effect on dominant microbiota composition
 GI survival and transiently colonization by L. paracasei A
Marzotto et al. (2006)
Preterm infants (n = 69) Probiotic: B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12
Placebo: only carrier material
Faeces Conventional culturing
FISH
Probiotic-treated group:
 ↑ Bifidobacterium
Mohan et al. (2006)
Healthy adults (n = 12) Probiotic: yoghurt containing L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus and B. animalis DN-173 010
Probiotic: B. animalis DN-173 010 (lyophilised)
Faeces Conventional culturing
Colony immunoblotting
DGGE
FISH
Both probiotic-treated groups:
 No significant effect on dominant microbiota composition
 GI survival and transiently colonization by B. animalis
Rochet et al. (2008)
Healthy adults (n = 30) Prebiotic: lactulose
Probiotic: S. boulardii
Synbiotic: lactulose and S. boulardii
Placebo: maltodextrin
Faeces DGGE
Group-specific qPCR
Prebiotic-treated group:
 ↑ B. adolescentis
 ↑ Bifidobacterium
Probiotic/synbiotic-treated group:
 No changes
Vanhoutte et al. (2006)
Healthy elderly (n = 55) Probiotic: fermented oat drink containing B. longum 46 and B. longum 2C
Probiotic: fermented oat drink containing B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12
Placebo: only fermented oat drink
Faeces Species-specific qPCR Probiotic-treated group (B. longum):
 ↑ B. adolescentis
 ↑ B. catenulatum
Probiotic-treated group (B. animalis):
 ↑ B. animalis
Ouwehand et al. (2008)
Healthy adults (n = 14) Probiotic: encapsulated L. rhamnosus R11 and L. acidophilus R52 Faeces Conventional culturing
qPCR
No significant effect on dominant microbiota composition
GI survival and transiently colonization by L. rhamnosus
Firmesse et al. (2008)
Healthy adults (n = 79) Probiotic: yoghurt containing L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus
Placebo: pasteurised yoghurt
Control: no yoghurt
Faeces DGGE
qPCR
Probiotic-treated group:
 ↑ lactic acid bacteria
 ↑ C. perfringens
Yoghurt-receiving groups:
 ↓ Bacteroides group
García-Albiach et al. (2008)
Healthy adults on antibiotic treatment (n = 40) Probiotic: B. animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04, B. animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07, L. acidophilus NCFM, L. paracasei Lpc-37, B. bifidum Bb-02 and maltodextran
Placebo: only maltodextran
Faeces Conventional culturing
T-RFLP
Probiotic-treated group:
 A more rapid return to pre-antibiotic microbiota composition
 ↑ Enterobacteriaceae
 ↑ Bifidobacterium
Engelbrektson et al. (2009)
Healthy elderly (n = 66) Probiotic: fermented oat drink containing B. longum 46 and B. longum 2C
Placebo: non-fermented oat drink
Faeces Conventional culturing
Species-specific qPCR
Probiotic-treated group:
Significant change in Bifidobacterium communities (↑ B. catenulatum, B. bifidum and B. breve)
Lahtinen et al. (2009)
  1. DGGE denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, FISH fluorescence in situ hybridisation, qPCR quantitative polymerase chain reaction, RAPD-PCR random amplification of polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction, T-RFLP terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism