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Table 1 Effect of protocatechuic acid on the inhibition of nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages

From: Potential anti-inflammatory, anti-adhesive, anti/estrogenic, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of anthocyanins and their gut metabolites

Protocatechuic (μM) Inhibition of NO production (%)
LPS 1 μg/mL LPS 1 μg/mL + IFN-γ 1,000 U/mL
25 16.2 ± 3.3* 4.3 ± 1.3*
50 21.3 ± 3.4* 6.1 ± 0.3*
100 27.4 ± 5.7* 12.7 ± 3.3*
  1. Cells were pre-treated with protocatechuic acid for 3 h and then stimulated for 24 h with LPS (1 μg/mL) or LPS (1 μg/mL) + INF-γ (1,000 U/mL). Data were compared to activated controls treated with LPS 1 μg/mL (62.9 ± 20.2 nmol/mg protein) or LPS 1 μg/mL + IFN-γ 1,000 U/mL (101.1 ± 9.0 nmol/mg protein). Data derived from at least three independent experiments performed in triplicate and are expressed as means ± SD
  2. * Statistical significance: P < 0.05 comparing the value with control