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Table 2 Effect of protocatechuic acid on nitric oxide inhibition in RAW 264.7 macrophages using two different experimental conditions

From: Potential anti-inflammatory, anti-adhesive, anti/estrogenic, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of anthocyanins and their gut metabolites

Protocatechuic (μM) Inhibition of NO production (%)
LPS 1 μg/mL LPS 1 μg/mL + IFN-γ 1,000 U/mL
Pre-treated 2.4 ± 16.9 3.7 ± 3.3
Co-treated 19.7 ± 7.5* 29.3 ± 4.1*
  1. Cells pre-treated with 10 μM protocatechuic acid for 3 h and then stimulated for 24 h with LPS (1 μg/mL) or LPS (1 μg/mL) + INF-γ (1,000 U/mL) and cells co-incubated with protocatechuic acid and LPS (1 μg/mL) or LPS (1 μg/mL) + INF-γ (1,000 U/mL) for 24 h. Data were compared to activated control. Experiments performed in triplicate, and data are expressed as means ± SD
  2. * Statistical significance: P < 0.05 comparing the value with control