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Table 3 Effect of gallic acid on MCP-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 secretion in Ea.hy 926

From: Potential anti-inflammatory, anti-adhesive, anti/estrogenic, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of anthocyanins and their gut metabolites

Gallic acid (μM) MCP-1 (%) ICAM-1 (%) VCAM-1 (%)
0 100 100 100
1 96.2 ± 5.0 94.5 ± 4.4 88.0 ± 38.3
10 85.7 ± 3.1* 91.9 ± 0.6* 76.2 ± 13.7*
50 81.2 ± 2.4* 88.6 ± 5.6 50.8 ± 5.9*
100 78.9 ± 1.8* 79.9 ± 0.6* 41.2 ± 4.9*
  1. Cells were pre-treated with gallic acid (0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 μM) for 16 h and then activated 6 h with TNF-α (10 ng/mL). Data were compared to TNF-α-stimulated controls (not treated with gallic acid). Data were derive from three independent experiments performed in duplicated and are expressed as means ± SD
  2. * Statistical significance: P < 0.05 comparing the value with control