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Table 1 General characteristics of the diet groups

From: Coffee intake mitigated inflammation and obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of high-fat diet-induced obese mice

  ND HF HFCC HFDC HFGC
Body weight (g) 30.0 ± 0.9* 39.3 ± 1.3 36.0 ± 1.0* 35.2 ± 0.1** 35.8 ± 0.9*
Average daily food intake (g) 3.0 ± 0.0 3.0 ± 0.0 3.0 ± 0.1 2.9 ± 0.1 3.1 ± 0.0
Daily calorie intake (kcal/day) 11.3 ± 0.1** 15.8 ± 0.1 15.6 ± 0.5 15.3 ± 0.5 16.2 ± 0.1
Mesenteric fat (g) 0.3 ± 0.1* 0.7 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.0* 0.5 ± 0.1
Epididymal fat (g) 0.7 ± 0.1** 2.3 ± 0.2 2.2 ± 0.3 2.2 ± 0.1 2.2 ± 0.1
Plasma insulin (ng/mL) 0.2 ± 0.0* 1.4 ± 0.4 1.0 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.2 1.3 ± 0.2
Plasma glucose (ng/mL) 141.2 ± 1.3 172.9 ± 2.9 168.9 ± 4.5 168.9 ± 4.0 173.6 ± 5.2
Plasma TC (mg/dL) 129.5 ± 20.0 151.8 ± 21.8 116.8 ± 13.0 153.9 ± 10.9 131.6 ± 3.2
Plasma TG (mg/dL) 59.0 ± 4.2* 73.0 ± 3.2 67.0 ± 4.3 66.0 ± 6.0 64.1 ± 4.4*
Liver weight (g) 0.9 ± 0.0** 1.1 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 0.0
Hepatic TC (mg/g) 3.9 ± 0.3 3.7 ± 0.1 3.1 ± 0.3 3.6 ± 0.2 3.1 ± 0.2
Hepatic TG (mg/g) 32.8 ± 3.5  37.9 ± 2.9  24.4 ± 2.3** 35.1 ± 2.1 26.5 ± 2.7*
  1. All values are mean ± SE (n = 4–5 mice per group)
  2. ND normal diet, HF high-fat diet, HFCC high-fat diet with caffeinated coffee, HFDC high-fat diet with decaffeinated coffee, HFGC high-fat diet with unroasted caffeinated green coffee
  3. p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01 versus the HF group by Dunnett’s test