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Table 1 Processes of phenotypic flexibility modulated by OGTT

From: Phenotypic flexibility as a measure of health: the optimal nutritional stress response test

Organ system Process Direction (↑, ↓, –) Disturbed
Gut Incretin production (GLP-1) ↑  
Adipose tissue Lipolysis IGT
Adipokine production  
Systemic stress Insulin sensitivity MetS, IGT, IFG, others
Oxidative stress MetS
Nitrosative stress T2DM
ER stress  
Muscle Proteolysis IFG
Muscle injury control  
Liver β-oxidation IGT
Ketogenesis IGT
Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis IGT
Purine degradation  
Lipoprotein production MetS, IGT
Bile production IGT
Kidney Urea cycle  
Vasculature Blood pressure regulation MetS
NO formation  
Adhesion Subtle ↑ T2DM
Pancreas Insulin secretion MetS
Brain HPA axis MetS
Neurotransmitters and precursors  
  1. MetS metabolic syndrome, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, IFG impaired fasting glucose, IGT impaired glucose tolerance, ER stress endoplasmic reticulum stress