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Table 1 Metabolic parameters at the end of experimental periods

From: Curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin both prevent osteoarthritis symptoms and decrease the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in estrogen-deficient rats

  Control (n = 10) Curcumin (n = 10) THC (n = 10) Positive control (n = 10) Normal control (n = 10)
Body weight at fourth week (g) 347 ± 32a 332 ± 30a 337 ± 29a 301 ± 22b 346 ± 31a
Body weight at seventh week (g) 332 ± 34b 328 ± 33b 329 ± 35b 297 ± 26c 367 ± 36a
Food intake at fourth week (g) 14.8 ± 1.7 14.0 ± 1.5 13.6 ± 2.0 13.1 ± 1.4 14.7 ± 1.8
Food intake at seventh week (g) 13.3 ± 1.6b 14.3 ± 1.9ab 14.0 ± 1.8ab 13.1 ± 1.7b 15.4 ± 1.7a
Average intake of supplements (mg/day) 57.4 ± 6.5 55.6 ± 6.1
Peri-uterine fat (g) 7.9 ± 1.1a 6.1 ± 0.7b 6.7 ± 0.8b 4.9 ± 0.9c 8.4 ± 0.9a
Retroperitoneum fat (g) 11.7 ± 2.0a 9.9 ± 1.1b 7.4 ± 1.0c 5.8 ± 0.5d 12.3 ± 1.8a
Uterine weight (g) 0.17 ± 0.06b 0.22 ± 0.07b 0.20 ± 0.05b 0.51 ± 0.08a 0.18 ± 0.05b
Serum 17β-estradiol levels (pg/ml) 1.6 ± 0.6b 1.8 ± 0.5b 1.9 ± 0.5b 7.5 ± 1.1a 1.7 ± 0.6b
Serum triglyceride (mg/dL) 85.9 ± 5.3a 71.9 ± 6.4b 70.4 ± 7.4b 68.3 ± 6.6b 84.3 ± 5.5a
Serum glucose (mg/dL) 103 ± 8a 98 ± 7a 100 ± 8a 88 ± 10b 102 ± 7a
Serum insulin (ng/mL) 1.49 ± 0.17a 1.21 ± 0.14b 1.26 ± 0.17b 1.19 ± 0.11b 1.43 ± 0.15a
HOMA-IR 8.5 ± 0.9a 6.6 ± 0.8b 6.9 ± 0.9b 5.8 ± 0.6c 8.1 ± 0.8a
  1. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were provided with a 45 % fat diet containing (1) 0.4 % curcumin, (2) 0.4 % tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), (3) 30 μg/kg body weight 17β-estradiol + 0.4 % dextrose (positive control), (4) 0.4 % dextrose (control), or (5) 0.4 % dextrose (normal control for osteoarthritis). At the beginning of the fifth week, an articular injection of monoiodoacetate into the right knee was performed on all OVX groups except the normal-control group and the assigned diets were provided for additional 3 weeks. Rats in the normal-control group had an articular injection of saline in the right knee. Values are mean ± SD
  2. a, b, cValues on the same row with different superscripts were significantly different among groups by the Tukey test at P < 0.05