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Table 1 Participant characteristics by quintiles (Q) of energy-adjusted total zinc, dietary zinc, zinc to iron ratio, and zinc supplement use (yes/no) in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study at baseline (1991–1996)

From: A prospective study of dietary and supplemental zinc intake and risk of type 2 diabetes depending on genetic variation in SLC30A8

  Total zinc intake Dietary zinc intake Zinc to iron ratio Zinc supplement use
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 No Yes
Number of subjects 5234 5228 5223 5221 5226 5234 5231 5224 5219 5224 5223 5227 5225 5228 5229 21,715 4417
Total zinc (mg/day) 8.6 (2.1) 10.3 (2.3) 11.5 (2.6) 13.1 (3.0) 21.4 (7.6) 10.5 (5.7) 12.1 (5.7) 12.8 (5.6) 13.9 (6.0) 15.5 (6.1) 12.6 (4.6) 12.3 (3.0) 11.5 (4.1) 15.1 (7.8) 13.3 (8.3) 11.2 (3.4) 21.7 (8.3)
Total iron (mg/day) 13.7 (4.4) 14.9 (4.9) 15.8 (5.2) 16.7 (5.9) 16.2 (5.8) 17.1 (14.5) 17.6 (11.1) 18.3 (12.7) 18.5 (10.9) 19.0 (10.7) 17.7 (5.4) 20.5 (22.3) 15.7 (9.3) 19.4 (8.9) 17.2 (5.3) 16.4 (11.6) 26.3 (11.2)
Dietary zinc (mg/day) 8.6 (2.1) 10.2 (2.3) 11.5 (2.6) 13.0 (3.1) 12.5 (4.1) 8.7 (2.3) 10.2 (2.5) 11.1 (2.8) 12.0 (2.9) 13.8 (3.8) 11.9 (3.5) 12.1 (3.0) 10.9 (3.1) 10.3 (3.1) 10.5 (3.5) 11.2 (3.4) 10.9 (3.1)
Zinc supplement (mg/day) among users 0.8 (0.5) 1.0 (0.6) 1.2 (0.7) 1.6 (1.1) 12.6 (7.1) 10.7 (8.5) 11.0 (7.4) 10.6 (7.5) 10.9 (8.1) 10.5 (7.1) 7.3 (7.5) 1.5 (1.5) 7.8 (5.6) 13.3 (4.3) 13.2 (10.2) 10.8 (7.7)
Demography and lifestyle
 Age (years) 59.3 (7.8) 58.2 (7.6) 57.5 (7.5) 56.6 (7.2) 57.5 (7.6) 59.4 (7.9) 58.7 (7.7) 57.9 (7.6) 57.0 (7.4) 56.2 (7.0) 57.5 (7.4) 57.0 (7.4) 57.7 (7.6) 58.7 (7.8) 58.3 (7.8) 57.7 (7.6) 58.4 (7.8)
 Male sex (%) 34.1 36.1 40.2 43.4 35.1 35.7 36.1 36.9 37.7 41.6 44.0 38.9 35.6 32.0 38.5 39.9 27.2
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.4 (3.9) 25.5 (3.8) 25.8 (3.9) 25.9 (4.0) 25.4 (3.9) 25.2 (3.8) 25.4 (3.8) 25.5 (3.8) 25.7 (3.9) 26.1 (4.0) 25.7 (3.9) 25.8 (4.0) 25.6 (3.9) 25.3 (3.8) 25.5 (3.9) 25.8 (3.9) 24.9 (3.7)
  < 25 (%) 49.8 49.6 46.9 45.3 51.1 51.7 50.8 49.6 47.7 42.7 47.0 46.5 48.0 51.6 49.4 46.7 57.3
  25–29.9 (%) 38.4 39.2 39.4 40.7 37.8 37.8 38.0 38.1 39.4 42.2 40.5 39.3 39.2 37.3 39.3 40.1 34.1
  ≥ 30 (%) 11.8 11.3 13.7 14.0 11.2 10.5 11.2 12.2 13.0 15.1 12.4 14.2 12.8 11.2 11.4 13.2 8.5
 High physical activity (%) 24.3 25.3 24.6 25.0 25.9 25.1 26.2 24.6 25.6 23.6 24.9 25.2 24.6 24.6 25.7 24.5 27.7
 Current smoker (%) 31.5 27.8 28.9 27.5 26.7 31.2 27.6 27.8 27.1 28.6 27.1 30.0 30.4 27.4 27.5 29.3 24.3
 High educational level (%) 11.8 13.9 14.0 15.5 17.9 12.7 13.8 14.9 15.6 16.0 14.6 15.3 13.9 14.2 15.0 13.7 19.1
Diet
 Total energy (kcal) 2056 (2041–2072) 2132 (2116–2148) 2190 (2173–2206) 2229 (2212–2246) 2172 (2156–2189) 2142 (2126–2158) 2164 (2148–2180) 2162 (2146–2179) 2166 (2150–2182) 2141 (2124–2159) 2210 (2192–2227) 2188 (2171–2205) 2150 (2133–2166) 2087 (2072–2102) 2143 (2127–2159) 2161 (2153–2169) 2126 (2109–2142)
 Alcohol (g/day) 8.0 (7.7–8.3) 7.7 (7.4–8.0) 7.8 (7.6–8.1) 7.9 (7.6–8.1) 7.5 (7.3–7.8) 8.5 (8.2–8.9) 7.7 (7.4–8.0) 7.7 (7.5–8.0) 7.6 (7.4–7.9) 7.3 (7.1–7.6) 7.8 (7.5–8.1) 7.7 (7.4–8.0) 7.4 (7.1–7.6) 7.7 (7.5–8.0) 8.3 (8.0–8.6) 7.8 (7.7–8.0) 7.5 (7.2–7.7)
 Dietary fiber (g/day) 16.4 (16.3–16.6) 18.2 (18.0–18.3) 19.2 (19.1–19.4) 20.3 (20.1–20.5) 20.4 (20.2–20.6) 17.0 (16.8–17.1) 18.4 (18.2–18.5) 19.0 (18.8–19.2) 19.7 (19.6–19.9) 20.4 (20.2–20.6) 20.2 (20.0–20.4) 19.2 (19.0–19.4) 18.0 (17.8–18.1) 18.2 (18.0–18.3) 18.8 (18.6–18.9) 18.6 (18.6–18.7) 19.9 (19.7–20.1)
 Processed meat (g/day) 31.2 (30.5–32.0) 37.2 (36.4–38.1) 39.8 (38.9–40.7) 41.9 (41.0–42.9) 37.4 (36.5–38.3) 31.8 (31.0–32.6) 36.7 (35.9–37.6) 38.4 (37.5–39.3) 39.4 (38.5–40.3) 41.0 (40.0–41.9) 41.2 (40.2–42.2) 39.1 (38.2–40.1) 36.8 (36.0–37.7) 34.2 (33.4–35.0) 35.9 (35.1–36.7) 38.2 (37.7–38.6) 33.5 (32.6–34.4)
 Sugar-sweetened beverages (g/day) 89.0 (84.8–93.4) 71.7 (68.2–75.4) 69.4 (66.1–72.9) 63.9 (60.7–67.3) 60.7 (57.5–64.2) 95.2 (90.8–99.9) 73.5 (69.9–77.3) 66.6 (63.4–70.0) 63.1 (60.0–66.4) 56.8 (53.7–60.1) 66.6 (63.1–70.2) 68.7 (65.3–72.3) 78.8 (75.0–82.8) 71.9 (68.3–75.7) 69.2 (65.9–72.8) 72.6 (70.8–74.4) 63.3 (59.7–67.2)
 Fruit and vegetables (g/day) 295.0 (290.3–299.8) 322.6 (318.2–327.0) 334.1 (329.4–338.8) 349.4 (344.6–354.3) 361.5 (356.5–366.5) 299.3 (294.6–304.1) 328.1 (323.5–332.8) 332.1 (327.5–336.7) 344.5 (339.9–349.2) 357.4 (352.4–362.5) 340.4 (335.5–345.3) 334.5 (329.7–339.4) 322.9 (318.2–327.7) 330.4 (325.8–335.1) 330.6 (325.8–335.3) 325.8 (323.5–328.2) 362.2 (357.0–367.4)
 Coffee (g/day) 405.1 (396.3–414.1) 411.0 (402.4–419.8) 435.0 (425.9–444.3) 437.4 (427.8–447.2) 418.5 (409.3–427.9) 404.6 (395.8–413.6) 407.7 (399.1–416.5) 415.9 (407.1–424.8) 432.4 (423.1–441.8) 447.2 (437.2–457.4) 426.0 (416.9–435.3) 438.1 (428.5–448.0) 424.1 (414.9–433.4) 401.3 (392.7–410.1) 417.3 (408.4–426.4) 427.7 (423.2–432.3) 390.2 (381.0–400.0)
 Diet supplement user (%) 62.6 63.3 61.1 62.2 87.4 68.0 68.2 68.3 65.5 66.6 63.6 65.0 63.4 76.1 68.6 60.7 100.0
  1. Continuous variables expressed as mean (standard deviation, SD) and categorical variables as percentages. Continuous dietary variables other than zinc intakes are expressed as geometric means (95% confidence interval)