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Table 2 Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) by quintiles (Q) of energy-adjusted total and dietary zinc intake, zinc to iron ratio, and zinc supplement use (yes/no) in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (1991–2014)

From: A prospective study of dietary and supplemental zinc intake and risk of type 2 diabetes depending on genetic variation in SLC30A8

  Total zinc intake  
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 P trend
Number of subjects (T2D cases) 5234 (638) 5228 (719) 5223 (789) 5221 (832) 5226 (698)  
Person-years 88,923 91,333 90,929 91,301 93,281  
Model 1 1.00 (ref) 1.10 (0.99–1.23) 1.22 (1.10–1.35) 1.29 (1.16–1.43) 1.07 (0.96–1.19) 0.017
Model 2 1.00 (ref) 1.14 (1.00–1.29) 1.19 (1.06–1.35) 1.25 (1.11–1.41) 1.14 (1.01–1.29) 0.011
Model 3 1.00 (ref) 1.17 (1.03–1.32) 1.23 (1.08–1.39) 1.29 (1.14–1.47) 1.16 (1.02–1.32) 0.008
Model 4 1.00 (ref) 1.09 (0.92–1.29) 1.11 (0.94–1.32) 1.26 (1.06–1.49) 1.05 (0.88–1.25) 0.212
  Dietary zinc intake  
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 P trend
Number of subjects (T2D cases) 5234 (617) 5231 (674) 5224 (705) 5219 (808) 5224 (872)  
Person-years 89,374 91,085 91,528 92,067 91,714  
Model 1 1.00 (ref) 1.08 (0.97–1.20) 1.14 (1.02–1.27) 1.31 (1.18–1.46) 1.43 (1.29–1.58) < 0.0001
Model 2 1.00 (ref) 1.10 (0.97–1.25) 1.15 (1.01–1.30) 1.25 (1.11–1.42) 1.31 (1.16–1.48) < 0.0001
Model 3 1.00 (ref) 1.14 (1.00–1.29) 1.19 (1.05–1.35) 1.32 (1.16–1.49) 1.39 (1.22–1.57) < 0.0001
Model 4 1.00 (ref) 1.05 (0.89–1.25) 1.12 (0.94–1.32) 1.26 (1.06–1.49) 1.27 (1.06–1.51) 0.001
  Zinc to iron ratio  
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 P trend
Number of subjects (T2D cases) 5223 (782) 5227 (801) 5225 (740) 5228 (656) 5229 (697)  
Person-years 90,860 90,977 90,965 91,825 91,141  
Model 1 1.00 (ref) 1.06 (0.96–1.17) 0.98 (0.89–1.08) 0.86 (0.77–0.95) 0.90 (0.81–1.00) < 0.0001
Model 2 1.00 (ref) 1.02 (0.91–1.14) 0.92 (0.82–1.03) 0.91 (0.81–1.03) 0.91 (0.81–1.02) 0.027
Model 3 1.00 (ref) 1.01 (0.90–1.14) 0.91 (0.82–1.03) 0.90 (0.80–1.02) 0.91 (0.81–1.02) 0.023
Model 4 1.00 (ref) 1.02 (0.87–1.20) 0.96 (0.82–1.13) 0.92 (0.78–1.08) 0.91 (0.77–1.07) 0.110
  Zinc supplement use     
  No Yes     
Number of subjects (T2D cases) 21,715 (3225) 4417 (451)     
Person-years 376,020 79,748     
Model 1 1.00 (ref) 0.68 (0.62–0.75)     
Model 2 1.00 (ref) 0.83 (0.74–0.92)     
Model 3 1.00 (ref) 0.79 (0.70–0.89)     
Model 4 1.00 (ref) 0.83 (0.71–0.98)     
  1. Model 1 Cox proportional hazards model with attained age as the time metric and adjusted for sex; Model 2 BMI-stratified Cox proportional hazards model with attained age as time metric and adjusted for sex, calendar year of study entry, educational level, smoking status, leisure-time physical activity, season of dietary data collection, and total energy intake; Model 3 as model 2 with additional adjustment for alcohol consumption, dietary fiber, fruit and vegetables, processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, coffee intake and diet supplement use (any); Model 4 as model 3 with exclusion of past food habit changers and potential energy misreporters (n excluded = 9204