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Table 3 Correlations between intake levels of protein from different sources and fold change expression of RhoA, VEGF-A, and VEGFR2 within each category of ER status

From: Dietary protein sources and tumoral overexpression of RhoA, VEGF-A and VEGFR2 genes among breast cancer patients

Dietary variables Fold change of RhoA Fold change of VEGF-A Fold change of VEGFR2
ER+ (n = 123) ER− (n = 20) ER+ (n = 118) ER− (n = 18) ER+ (n = 115) ER− (n = 14)
β § p value β adj. ¥ p value β p value β adj. p value β p value β adj. p value β p value β adj. p value β p value β adj. p value β p value β adj. p value
Total protein* 0.044 0.642 0.119a 0.260 0.111 0.651 0.007 0.977 0.197 0.032 0.207n 0.102 − 0.063 0.834 − 0.046 0.919 0.075 0.416 0.111aa 0.271 − 0.264 0.343 − 0.293 0.471
Animal protein* 0.130 0.181 0.230 b 0.045 − 0.07 0.755 0.588 0.009 0.119 0.199 0.098o 0.325 0.385 0.127 0.149 0.663 0.253 0.005 0.299 bb 0.003 − 0.263 0.344 − 0.444 0.357
Plant protein* − 0.041 0.663 − 0.111c 0.292 − 0.018 0.941 − 0.247 0.419 0.144 0.132 0.137p 0.162 − 0.294 0.237 − 0.241 0.354 0.045 0.629 − 0.005cc 0.961 − 0.164 0.560 − 0.110 0.744
Red meat 0.245 0.007 0.297 d 0.002 − 0.151 0.538 − 0.091 0.717 0.274 0.002 0.283 q 0.002 0.121 0.643 0.318 0.289 0.269 0.002 0.315 dd 0.001 − 0.121 0.656 − 0.050 0.903
Processed red meat 0.056 0.546 0.087e 0.388 − 0.342 0.151 − 0.447 0.169 0.102 0.250 0.116r 0.294 0.124 0.624 0.013 0.973 0.068 0.452 0.133ee 0.186 0.621 0.010 0.643 0.126
Poultries − 0.114 0.231 − 0.177f 0.088 − 0.019 0.940 0.866 0.009 − 0.070 0.441 − 0.071s 0.489 − 0.150 0.553 − 0.043 0.901 − 0.023 0.806 − 0.041ff 0.692 − 0.226 0.401 − 0.531 0.150
Seafood − 0.049 0.597 − 0.072g 0.496 − 0.221 0.350 − 0.406 0.194 0.076 0.425 0.138t 0.188 − 0.350 0.183 − 0.351 0.247 0.051 0.572 0.095gg 0.364 − 0.135 0.618 0.059 0.827
Dairy products 0.076 0.426 0.153h 0.172 0.280 0.232 0.673 0.076 0.109 0.219 0.126u 0.187 0.486 0.035 0.629 0.050 − 0.058 0.530 − 0.039hh 0.711 0.467 0.068 0.646 0.193
Legumes 0.023 0.799 0.003i 0.976 0.408 0.074 0.673 0.124 − 0.064 0.479 − 0.081v 0.408 0.118 0.630 − 0.145 0.709 − 0.150 0.102 − 0.177ii 0.067 0.398 0.126 0.697 0.051
Nuts and cereals − 0.074 0.419 − 0.227 j 0.045 − 0.249 0.289 − 0.231 0.359 0.133 0.131 0.116w 0.283 − 0.257 0.288 − 0.387 0.099 − 0.112 0.212 − 0.130jj 0.166 − 0.053 0.844 − 0.307 0.248
Residual protein 0.06 0.527 0.135k 0.229 0.01 0.967 0.329 0.316 0.169 0.082 0.311 x 0.004 − 0.150 0.578 − 0.100 0.786 − 0.034 0.724 0.090kk 0.405 0.068 0.816 − 0.330 0.101
Total protein/dietary fiber 0.146 0.117 0.249 l 0.020 0.402 0.088 0.382 0.202 0.034 0.714 0.020y 0.844 − 0.195 0.438 − 0.137 0.689 0.108 0.243 0.197ll 0.056 − 0.130 0.658 − 0.105 0.779
Animal protein/plant protein 0.044 0.650 0.160m 0.133 0.081 0.741 0.132 0.708 − 0.012 0.897 0.076z 0.471 0.292 0.242 0.344 0.205 0.253 0.006 0.331 mm < 0.001 − 0.251 0.348 − 0.254 0.406
  1. ER estrogen receptor
  2. *Energy-adjusted variables in terms of nutrient density were estimated. §Values are expressed as β from a simple linear regression model. ¥Values are expressed as β from multivariate linear regression adjusted model. Dietary variables adjusted for the following: aMean duration of breastfeeding (months), BMI (kg/m2), and crude fiber (g/day). bFat intake (g/day), crude fiber (g/day), BMI (kg/m2), age first childbirth (years), and number of pregnancies. cEnergy intake (kcal/day), dietary fiber, and BMI (kg/m2). dEnergy intake (kcal/day). eEnergy intake (kcal/day) and tumor size (cm). fLog transformed and adjusted for fat intake (g/day), the age of menarche (years), and tumor size (cm). gAge of first childbirth (years), the age of menarche (years), and waist circumference (cm). hLog transformed and adjusted for energy intake (kcal/day), BMI (kg/m2), tumor size (cm), and age of menarche (years). iBMI (kg/m2), tumor size (cm), and carbohydrate intake (g/day). jLog transformed and adjusted for fat intake (g/day), the mean duration of breastfeeding (months), BMI (kg/m2), and tumor size (cm). kMean duration of breastfeeding (months), BMI (kg/m2), fat intake (g/day), and soluble fiber (g/day). lCarbohydrate intake (g/day), the age of menarche (years), and mean duration of breastfeeding (months). mFat intake (g/day), the age of first childbirth (years), and number of lactation (n). nFat intake (g/day), tumor size (cm), and carbohydrate intake (g/day). oFat intake (g/day) and tumor size (cm). pDietary fiber intake (g/day) and waist to hip ratio. qFat intake (g/day). rFat intake (g/day), red meat intake (g/day), the age of first childbirth (years), waist to hip ratio, and age of menarche (years). sFat intake (g/day), mean duration of breastfeeding (months), and BMI (kg/m2). tLog transformed and adjusted for energy intake (kcal/day) and mean duration of breastfeeding (months). uFat intake (g/day), red meat intake (g/day), number of pregnancies (n), and physical activity rate. vLog transformed and adjusted for energy intake (kcal/day), insoluble fiber intake (g/day), and age at diagnosis (years). wEnergy intake (kcal/day), insoluble fiber (g/day), and waist to hip ratio. xFat intake (g/day), BMI (kg/m2), and tumor size (cm). yFat intake (g/day) and tumor size (cm). zFat intake (g/day), the age of first childbirth (years), and waist to hip ratio. aaDietary fiber intake (g/day), fat intake (g/day), and tumor size (cm). bbMean duration of breastfeeding (months) and tumor size (cm). ccFat intake (g/day) and age of menarche (years). ddFat intake (g/day), BMI (kg/m2), and tumor size (cm). eeRed meat intake (g/day), fat intake (g/day), and tumor size (cm). ffFat intake (g/day), soluble fiber (g/day), and waist to hip ratio. ggEnergy intake (kcal), mean duration of breastfeeding (months), and tumor size (cm). hhRed meat intake (g/day), mean duration of breastfeeding (months), physical activity rate, and tumor size (cm). iiLog transformed and adjusted for fat intake (g/day), waist to hip ratio, and tumor size (cm). jjLog transformed and adjusted waist circumference (cm). kkFat intake (g/day), tumor size (cm), and waist circumference (cm). llCarbohydrate intake (g/day), the age of menarche (years), and waist to hip ratio. mmFat intake (g/day) and BMI (kg/m2)