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Table 2 Overview of the selected studies on bulb-and stem vegetables

From: Food intake biomarkers for green leafy vegetables, bulb vegetables, and stem vegetables: a review

Dietary factorInterventionDose of interventionStudy designnAnalytical methodSample typeCandidate biomarkers of food intakePrimary reference
AsparagusFreshly boiled Asparagus100 gAcute intervention (single dose intervention)8GC-MSUrineS-methyl-thioacrylate
S-methyl-3- (methylthio)-thiopropionate
Dimethyl trisulfide
 Asparagus500 gAcute intervention
(single dose intervention)
Repetition three months later
GC-MSUrine (overnight collection after asparagus dinner)Methanethiol,
Dimethyl sulphide
Dimethyl disulphide
Dimethyl sulphoxide
Dimethyl sulphone
ArtichokeSteam cooked artichoke61.7 g with 5.5 g olive oilAcute intervention
(single dose intervention)
5HPLC-CoularrayPlasma (7 consecutive samples during 8 h)Hydroxycinnamic acid
Dicaffeoylquinic acid
 Artichoke capsules320 mg extractsAcute intervention
(3 doses during 8 hours, 0, 4 and 8 hours)
10HPLCUrine (24 h urine vs. baseline)Ferulic acid
Isoferulic acid
Dihydroferulic acid
Vanilic acid
 Artichoke leaf extract (ALE)2 different high-dose artichoke leaf extracts – (ALE):
ALE A 2.4 g and ALE B 0.625 g
Acute intervention (2 different doses, cross-over, separated by 10 days wash out14HPLCBlood and urine
(13 blood samples over 12 h, 1 urine sample after 24 h)
Caffeoylquninic acid
Dihydroferulic acid
Ferulic acid
Dihydrocaffeic acid
CeleryCelery leaves2 g/kg body weightControlled acute Study
(single dose intervention)
20HPLCPlasma (9 samples over 28 hApigenin[70]