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Table 1 Characteristics on baseline of nested case-control participants by dietary intake of total branched chain amino acids

From: Genetic predisposition to impaired metabolism of the branched chain amino acids, dietary intakes, and risk of type 2 diabetes

  Total BCAA intakes (mg/g protein) P value*
T1 (n = 289) T2 (n = 290) T3 (n = 289)
T2D cases, % 130 (45.1) 139 (47.9) 164 (56.7) 0.014
Age (years) 52.5 (8.3) 50.8 (8.4) 52.0 (9.5) 0.06
Male [n, (%)] 71 (24.7) 112 (38.6) 151 (52.2) < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 25.1 (0.2) 25.1 (0.2) 25.8 (0.2) 0.041
Waist circumferences (cm) 85.6 (0.6) 87.1 (0.6) 89.9 (0.6) < 0.001
Current smokers [n, (%)] 36 (12.5) 57 (19.7) 62 (21.5) 0.020
Current drinkers [n, (%)] 91 (31.6) 114 (39.3) 126 (43.6) 0.011
Exercised regularly [n, (%)] 148 (51.4) 122 (42.1) 137 (47.4) 0.079
Energy intake(kcal/day) 2199 (50.4) 2345 (50.2) 2600 (50.4) < 0.001
Family history of T2D [n, (%)] 46 (16.1) 44 (15.2) 47 (16.3) 0.933
Hypertension [n, (%)] 74 (25.9) 57 (19.7) 79 (27.4) 0.074
Hyperlipid [n, (%)] 70 (24.5) 69 (24.0) 81 (28.4) 0.418
Coronary [n, (%)] 70 (24.3) 51 (17.6) 60 (20.8) 0.139
Dietary BCAAs (mg/g protein)     
Total BCAAs 174 (1.3) 200 (1.3) 253 (1.3) < 0.001
Isoleucine 44.0 (0.3) 50.1 (0.3) 62.0 (0.3) < 0.001
Leucine 79.7 (0.7) 93.4 (0.7) 121 (0.7) < 0.001
Valine 49.8 (0.3) 56.5 (0.3) 70.0 (0.3) < 0.001
Circulating BCAAs (μmol/L)
 Total BCAAs 11.8 (0.07) 11.9 (0.07) 11.9 (0.07) 0.23
 Isoleucine 4.8 (0.05) 4.9 (0.05) 4.9 (0.05) 0.86
 Leucine 3.9 (0.05) 3.9 (0.05) 4.0 (0.05) 0.25
 Valine 9.9 (0.07) 10.1 (0.07) 10.1 (0.07) 0.21
Protein (g/day) 73.2 (2.1) 64.0 (2.1) 51.0 (2.1) < 0.001
Fat (g/day) 77.8 (1.8) 77.1 (1.8) 72.0 (1.8) 0.049
Carbohydrate (g/day) 314 (8.4) 354 (8.3) 431 (8.4) < 0.001
Fast glucose (mmol/l) 5.6 (0.1) 5.4 (0.1) 5.7 (0.1) 0.40
  1. Data represent the mean ± SD or number (%)
  2. BCAAs, branched chain amino acids; BMI, body mass index; T2D, type 2 diabetes
  3. *P values were calculated by using the general linear model for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables