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Table 3 Tertiles of dietary BCAAs in relation to HbA1c according to the genetic risk score in thirds of nested case-control participants

From: Genetic predisposition to impaired metabolism of the branched chain amino acids, dietary intakes, and risk of type 2 diabetes

GRS Dietary BCAAs(mg/g protein) Effect size P for trend P for interaction
T1 T2 T3
Total BCAAs       0.038
 < 4 (n = 424) 5.90(0.76) 5.82(1.11) 6.09(1.14) 0.10(0.076) 0.18  
 ≥ 4 (n = 444) 5.68(1.06) 6.01(0.74)* 6.13(1.27)* 0.21(0.071) 0.003  
Isoleucine       0.041
 < 4 (n = 424) 5.89(0.76) 5.82(1.11) 6.10(1.14) 0.10(0.076) 0.13  
 ≥ 4 (n = 444) 5.68(1.06) 6.02(0.75)* 6.13(1.27)* 0.21(0.072) 0.003  
Leucine       0.050
 < 4 (n = 424) 5.88(0.76) 5.83(1.11) 6.09(1.14) 0.10(0.075) 0.19  
 ≥ 4 (n = 444) 5.68(1.07) 6.01(0.74)* 6.13(1.27)* 0.21(0.071) 0.003  
Valine       0.114
 < 4 (n = 424) 5.90(0.76) 5.83(1.10) 6.08(1.14) 0.11(0.077) 0.15  
 ≥ 4 (n = 444) 5.73(0.98) 5.96(0.86) 6.13(1.27)* 0.19(0.072) 0.020  
  1. General linear model was used for estimation of mean (SD) for HbA1c (%) and linear regression model for β coefficient (SE)
  2. BCAAs, branched chain amino acids; GRS, genetic risk score
  3. Results were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, current drinkers, current smokers, physical activity, diabetes treatment, cardiovascular disease, fruit intakes, poultry intakes, and total energy intakes
  4. Comparing to the lowest dietary intake group, P < 0.05