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Table 4 The interaction between dietary BCAAs and GRS on the circulating BCAA level

From: Genetic predisposition to impaired metabolism of the branched chain amino acids, dietary intakes, and risk of type 2 diabetes

Dietary BCAAs (mg) Genetic risk score Effect size P for trend P for interaction
< 4 (n = 424) ≥ 4 (n = 444)
Total BCAAs      0.015
 T1 (n = 289) 139.95 (29.48) 139.53 (26.71) 0.55 (3.34) 0.87  
 T2 (n = 290) 140.36 (24.87) 144. 80 (28.06) 1.93 (3.27) 0.56  
 T3 (n = 289) 139.10 (29.80) 147.43 (29.10)* 9.19 (3.31) 0.006  
Isoleucine      0.054
 T1 (n = 289) 23.80 (9.47) 24.38 (9.64) 0.61 (1.13) 0.59  
 T2 (n = 290) 23.73 (8.94) 24.77 (9.55) 0.98 (1.17) 0.40  
 T3 (n = 289) 24.06 (8.18) 24.45 (10.08) 0.93 (1.07) 0.39  
Leucine      0.64
 T1 (n = 289) 15.47 (7.06) 15.42 (6.86) − 0.55 (0.84) 0.52  
 T2 (n = 290) 15.44 (5.55) 15.20 (6.52) − 0.64 (0.77) 0.41  
 T3 (n = 289) 16.54 (8.22) 16.42 (10.17) 0.70 (1.07) 0.52  
Valine      0.046
 T1 (n = 289) 101.57 (26.03) 100.54 (21.70) 0.37 (2.91) 0.90  
 T2 (n = 290) 100.49 (20.81) 104.34 (22.44) 1.99 (2.70) 0.46  
 T3 (n = 289) 98.22 (21.91) 106.30 (21.51)* 7.34 (2.58) 0.005  
  1. The general linear model was used for estimation of mean (SD) for circulating BCAAs (μmol/L) and linear regression model for β coefficient (SE)
  2. BCAAs, branched chain amino acids
  3. Results were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, current drinkers, current smokers, physical activity, diabetes treatment, cardiovascular disease, fasting glucose, fat intakes, animal protein intakes, fruit intakes, poultry intakes, and total energy intakes
  4. Comparing to the lowest GRS group, P < 0.05