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Table 4 MR analysis of the causal association of plasma vitamin C levels with AD, AD proxy phenotype, and cognitive performance using 11 genetic variants including the rs174547 variant

From: Mendelian randomization to evaluate the effect of plasma vitamin C levels on the risk of Alzheimer’s disease

GWAS dataset Method OR/betaa 95% CI P value
IGAP AD IVW 0.93 0.80−1.09 3.85E−01
Weighted median 1.01 0.83−1.23 9.25E−01
MR-Egger 1.09 0.85−1.40 4.90E−01
MR-PRESSO 0.93 0.81−1.08 3.80E−01
UK Biobank AD proxy IVW 0.93 0.88−0.98 7.00E−03
Weighted median 0.92 0.87−0.97 2.00E−03
MR-Egger 0.91 0.85−0.98 9.00E−03
MR-PRESSO 0.93 0.88−0.98 2.30E−02
Maternal AD group from UK Biobank IVW 0.89 0.84−0.94 7.29E−05
Weighted median 0.87 0.82−0.93 3.30E−05
MR-Egger 0.87 0.80−0.94 1.00E−03
MR-PRESSO 0.89 0.85−0.93 6.65E−04
Paternal AD group from UK Biobank IVW 1.02 0.92−1.12 7.59E−01
Weighted median 1.00 0.92−1.10 9.25E−01
MR-Egger 0.99 0.86−1.14 9.08E−01
MR-PRESSO 1.02 0.92−1.12 7.66E−01
Cognitive performance IVW 0.007 [−0.043, 0.057] 0.775
Weighted median −0.012 [−0.050, 0.026] 0.546
MR-Egger −0.019 [−0.100, 0.061] 0.638
MR-PRESSO 0.007 [−0.043, 0.057] 0.781
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, IVW inverse-variance weighted, IGAP International Genomics of Alzheimer’s Project, MR-PRESSO Mendelian randomization pleiotropy residual sum and outlier; the significance of suggestive association between vitamin C levels and AD was at P < 0.05; the significance of statistically significant association between vitamin C levels and AD was at Bonferroni-corrected significance P < 0.05/4 = 0.0125. aOR for AD and AD proxy phenotype, and beta for cognitive performance