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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population across AMY1 CN groups (n = 1764)

From: Effect of AMY1 copy number variation and various doses of starch intake on glucose homeostasis: data from a cross-sectional observational study and a crossover meal study

  AMY1 CN groups  
  ≤ 4 (n = 347) 5–6 (n = 676) 7–9 (n = 460) ≥ 10 (n = 281) P value1
AMY1 CN 3.65 (0.66) 5.71 (0.46) 7.92 (0.68) 11.01 (1.54)  
Females, N% 174 (50.1) 359 (53.1) 235 (51.1) 155 (55.2) 0.57
Age, years 38.5 (13.9) 39.5 (13.5) 38.7 (14.1) 37.4 (13.6) 0.17
BMI, kg/m2 25.5 (4.2) 25.4 (4.4) 25.9 (4.9) 25.3 (4.5) 0.25
Prediabetes, N% 25 (7.2) 55 (8.1) 49 (10.7) 27 (9.6) 0.30
Smokers, N%3 43 (14.3) 92 (15.7) 66 (16.5) 52 (21.1) 0.38
Parent born outside Swe/Den, N% 29 (8.4) 47 (7.0) 30 (6.5) 17 (6.0) 0.54
Physical activity level2 1.67 (0.13) 1.67 (0.14) 1.67 (0.14) 1.67 (0.13) 0.97
Total energy intake, kcal/day2 2015 (598) 2072 (919) 2044 (662) 1985 (686) 0.55
Starch intake, E%2 27.1 (5.2) 27.4 (6.0) 27.2 (6.3) 27.9 (5.5) 0.46
Fiber intake, g/1000 kcal2 9.50 (3.09) 9.94 (3.20) 9.61 (3.48) 9.57 (3.27) 0.26
Total bread intake, servings/week4 11.4 (7.8) 11.8 (8.2) 11.7 (8.8) 10.6 (7.2) 0.31
  1. Values are unadjusted means (SD) unless stated otherwise
  2. 1P values were determined using one-way ANOVA for continuous variables and the chi-square test for categorical variables
  3. 2Data from 4-day food record, n = 1223
  4. 3Data available for n = 1531
  5. 4Data from FFQ, n = 1408
  6. AMY1, salivary α-amylase gene; CN, copy number