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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the study population across tertiles of starch intake (n = 1223)

From: Effect of AMY1 copy number variation and various doses of starch intake on glucose homeostasis: data from a cross-sectional observational study and a crossover meal study

  Starch intake tertiles  
  Low < 24.9 E% (n = 407) Medium 24.9–29.4 E% (n = 408) High > 29.4 E% (n = 408) P value1
Starch intake, E% 21.3 (3.7) 27.3 (1.3) 33.5 (3.7)  
AMY1 CN 6.7 (2.5) 6.6 (2.6) 6.9 (2.5) 0.24
Females, N% 255 (62.7) 223 (54.7) 186 (45.6) < 0.01
Age, years 39.5 (13.6) 39.6 (13.6) 39.5 (14.1) 1.00
BMI, kg/m2 25.5 (4.8) 25.4 (4.4) 25.3 (4.2) 0.86
Prediabetes, N% 40 (9.8) 31 (7.6) 36 (8.8) 0.53
Smokers, N%2 52 (13.8) 45 (11.9) 57 (15.2) 0.10
Physical activity level 1.67 (0.13) 1.67 (0.14) 1.66 (0.14) 0.49
Parent born outside Swe/Den, N% 22 (5.4) 23 (5.6) 31 (7.6) 0.65
Total energy intake, kcal/day 2076 (660) 2070 (669) 1971 (922) 0.09
Fiber intake, g/1000 kcal 8.6 (3.1) 9.5 (2.8) 11.0 (3.4) < 0.01
Total bread intake, servings/week3 9.9 (7.1) 12.1 (8.2) 12.4 (8.8) < 0.01
  1. Values are unadjusted means (SD) unless stated otherwise
  2. 1P values were determined using one-way ANOVA for continuous variables and the chi-square test for categorical variables
  3. 2Data from n = 1130
  4. 3Data from FFQ, n = 1089
  5. AMY1, salivary α-amylase gene; CN, copy number