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Table 3 Fasting plasma glucose and BMI across AMY1 CN groups and in strata of starch intake tertiles

From: Effect of AMY1 copy number variation and various doses of starch intake on glucose homeostasis: data from a cross-sectional observational study and a crossover meal study

  AMY1 CN groups Per AMY1 CN Starch interaction
  ≤ 4 5–6 7–9 ≥ 10 ß P ß1 P1 Adjusted ß2 Adjusted P2
Fasting plasma glucose (excl individuals with prediabetes)           
All (n = 1608) 5.19 (5.13–5.24) 5.20 (5.16–5.25) 5.21 (5.16–5.27) 5.25 (5.19–5.31) 0.004 0.40 − 0.002 0.02 − 0.002, 0.03
Low starch < 24.9E% (n = 367) 5.17 (5.05–5.29) 5.13 (5.03–5.22) 5.20 (5.09–5.32) 5.31 (5.17–5.45) 0.017 0.06     
Medium starch 24.9–29.4 E% (n = 377) 5.11 (4.98–5.23) 5.21 (5.10–5.32) 5.21 (5.09–5.34) 5.19 (5.05–5.34) 0.004 0.68     
High starch > 29.4E% (n = 372) 5.24 (5.11–5.37) 5.24 (5.14–5.34) 5.16 (5.05–5.27) 5.16 (5.03–5.29) − 0.017 0.06     
ß per E% of starch3 0.005 0.006 − 0.009 − 0.009       
P value2 0.43 0.08 0.09 0.14       
Adjusted ß per E% of starch4 0.005 0.007 − 0.011 − 0.004       
Adjusted P value4 0.42 0.07 0.05 0.47       
BMI           
All (n = 1764) 25.3 (24.8–25.8) 25.2 (24.8–25.6) 25.7 (25.3–26.2) 25.3 (24.7–25.9) 0.05 0.26 − 0.017 0.07 − 0.018 0.05
Low starch < 24.9E% (n = 407) 25.4 (24.2–26.6) 24.6 (23.7–25.6) 25.6 (24.5–26.8) 25.5 (24.1–26.8) 0.08 0.39     
Medium starch 24.9–29.4 E% (n = 408) 24.7 (23.7–25.8) 25.1 (24.2–26.0) 26.0 (24.6–27.0) 25.8 (24.6–27.0) 0.18 0.03     
High starch > 29.4E% (n = 408) 25.5 (24.5–26.6) 25.1 (24.3–25.9) 25.2 (24.3–26.1) 24.3 (23.2–25.4) − 0.14 0.09     
ß per E% of starch3 − 0.03 − 0.02 − 0.07 − 0.11       
P value2 0.57 0.57 0.12 0.04       
Adjusted ß per E% of starch4 − 0.03 0.002 − 0.06 − 0.09       
Adjusted P value4 0.53 0.96 0.19 0.10       
  1. Values are presented as the means (95% CI) adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity unless stated otherwise
  2. 1Interaction AMY1 CN × starch intake, both as continuous variables, adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity (n = 1223, excluding individuals with prediabetes n = 1116)
  3. 2Interaction AMY1 CN × starch intake, both as continuous variables, adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, energy intake, smoking habits, and physical activity level (n = 1130, excluding individuals with prediabetes n = 1026)
  4. 3Association between starch intake (continuous) and fasting glucose or BMI in strata of AMY1 CN adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity.
  5. 4Association between starch intake (continuous) and fasting glucose or BMI in strata of AMY1 CN adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, energy intake, smoking habits, and physical activity level
  6. AMY1, salivary α-amylase gene; CN, copy number