BIOCLAIMS standard diet (BIOsd): a reference diet for nutritional physiology
© The Author(s) 2012
Received: 11 August 2011
Accepted: 13 December 2011
Published: 7 January 2012
Experimental replication is fundamental for practicing science. To reduce variability, it is essential to control sources of variation as much as possible. Diet is an important factor that can influence many processes and functional outcomes in studies performed with rodent models. This is especially true for, but not limited to, nutritional studies. To compare functional effects of different nutrients, it is important to use standardized, semi-purified diets. Here, we propose and describe a standard reference diet, the BIOCLAIMS standard diet. The diet is AIN-93 based, but further defined with dietary and experimental requirements taken into account that allow for experiments with bioactive food components and natural (non-expensive) labeling. This diet will be implemented by two European research consortia, Mitofood and BIOCLAIMS, to ensure inter-laboratory comparability.
KeywordsSemi-purified diet Nutrient requirements Rat Mouse
Nutrition will affect functional outcomes in many studies performed with rodent models. This may already be the case with strong pharmaceutical or toxicological interventions, or when dominant gene knock-outs or knock-ins are considered. When we take obesity, type 2 diabetes, or cardiovascular diseases into consideration, which are multifactorial diseases with a strong dietary background, nutrition becomes even more important. Indeed, dietary intervention studies in wild-type mice and rats were found to give relatively small effects on a variety of parameters such as lipoprotein profiles, biomarkers of inflammation and gene expression responses (Keijer et al. 2010; Patsouris et al. 2006). In addition, “standard” chow diets usually contain poorly specified ingredients that may strongly vary in composition between batches and between providers. For example, a 5,000-fold difference in the level of phytoestrogens has been encountered (Leiter 2009; Thigpen et al. 1999). Moreover, when a chow diet is compared with a semi-purified diet, a remarkable difference in digestibility and thus effective energy intake has been described (Ortmann et al. 2003).
To be able to compare functional effects of different nutrients, it is important to use standardized, semi-purified diets; both as experimental as well as its reference, control diet. This necessity is now widely recognized among researchers employing rodents to unravel molecular mechanisms underlying functional effects of nutritional components (Baur et al. 2006; Daniel and Dieck 2004). Indeed, semi-purified control and experimental diets based on the recommendations of the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN93) are increasingly used. While of great importance, these guidelines leave substantial room for variation in a number of dietary constituents that are of significant relevance to molecular and health outcomes of dietary intervention studies (Keijer et al. 2010).
A need to further standardize diets is strongly felt in order to improve comparison of study outcomes and to increase efficiency of resources and animals (Barnard et al. 2009). It is, however, difficult to reach consensus since it implies that individual laboratories have to perform additional initial comparative analyses in ongoing research lines. Despite this, partners in two European research consortia, Mitofood1 and BIOCLAIMS,2 consisting of, respectively, 38 and 11 partners spread throughout 24 countries in Europe have proposed a common, defined semi-purified AIN93-based reference diet, the BIOCLAIMS Standard Diet (BIOsd), as well as an experimental high-fat diet. Here, we present the choices that have been made, including the underlying rationale, as well as a number of dietary analyses that have been performed on the final formulation of the standard diet.
Materials and methods
Gross energy determination
Approximately 10 g of BIOsd (Research Diets Services, Wijk bij Duurstede, NL) and standard chow (Teklad global 16% protein rodent diet, 2016) were grinded on a 1.0-mm sieve to prepare a homogenate sample for gross energy determination. Samples were left at room temperature for 24 h to acclimatize for humidity. Samples were measured by IKA C7000 calorimeter (Staufen, Germany) in triplicate or until the deviation was less than 2%. Polyethylene bags were used as standard.
Kahl pellet hardness tester
Male C57BL/6JRccHsd mice were delivered from Harlan Laboratories GmbH to the German Institute of Human Nutrition (DIfE) at 4 weeks of age. Mice were housed individually with ad libitum access to food and water at a temperature of 22°C on a 12 h light–dark cycle. At 6 weeks of age, mice were switched from standard chow diet (Ssniff) to the BIOsd (Research Diets Services, Wijk bij Duurstede, NL). Body weight and composition was determined weekly for 12 weeks using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) (Bruker’s Minispec MQ10, Housten Texas, USA) as described (Klaus et al. 2005). Animal maintenance and experiments were approved by the animal welfare committee of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment (State of Brandenburg, Germany).
All experiments were performed in accordance with the directive of the European Communities Council (68/609/EEC) and the Principles of Laboratory Animal Care (NIH publication no. 85-23, revised 1985).
Results and discussion
Composition g/kg diet
Soybean oil (no additives)
Mineral mix (AIN-93G-MX)c
Vitamin mix (AIN-93-VX)d
Tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) (mg)
Total energy kcal/kg diet
% as carbohydrates
% as protein
% as fata
Contribution of minerals
Essential mineral elements
Calcium, carbonate, anhydrous, 40.04% Ca
Potassium phosphate, monobasic, 22.76% P; 28.73% Ka
Potassium citrate, tri-potassium, monohydrate, 36.16% K
Sodium chloride, 39.34% Na; 60.66% Cl
Potassium sulfate, 44.87% K; 18.39% S
Magnesium oxide, 60.32% Mg
Ferric citrate, 16.5% Fe
Zinc carbonate, 52.14% Zn
Manganous carbonate, 47.79% Mn
Cupric carbonate, 57.47% Cu
Potassium iodate, 59.3% I
Sodium selenate anhydrous, 41.79% Se
Ammonium paramolybdate, 4 hydrate, 54.34% Mo
Potential beneficial mineral elements
Sodium meta-silicate, 9 hydrate, 9.88% Si
Chromium potassium sulfate, 12 hydrate, 10.42% Cr
Lithium chloride, 16.38% Li
Boric acid, 17.5% B
Sodium fluoride, 45.24% F
Nickel carbonate, 45% Ni
Ammonium vanadate, 43.55% V
Powdered sucrose (carrier)
Contribution of vitamins
Vitamin B-12 (cyanocobalamin) (0.1% in mannitol)
Vitamin E (all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) (500 IU/g)a
Vitamin A (all-trans-retinyl palmitate) (500 IU/g)
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) (400 IU/g)
Vitamin K (phylloquinone)
Powdered sucrose (carrier)
Cellulose is used at 50 g/kg according to AIN-93G and AIN-93M (Table 1).
Pellet hardness (kg)
Pellet hardness (kg)
21.9 ± 0.6
28.3 ± 0.8
For the BIOsd a choice has been made to use 220 g protein/kg diet, supplemented with 3 g l-Cysteine, corresponding to a total of 23en% of protein. This protein content avoids potential hyperphagia due to lower protein content (Du et al. 2000). l-Cysteine is added to meet the requirements of sulfur amino acid levels (Reeves et al. 1993). The increase in casein also covers the increase in recommendation of sulfur amino acids according to the National Research Council nutrient requirements of Laboratory Animals (National Research Counsil 1995).
Fatty acid profile (% of g/kg diet)
Gross energy content kJ/g
16.8 ± 0.0478
17.5 ± 0.0016
In addition, it was decided to optionally add 30 mg/kg cholesterol to the diet (investigator depended), since human diets usually contain cholesterol. This amount of cholesterol corresponds to the amount of cholesterol present in approximately 30 g lard/kg diet and represents average Dutch human intake (Van Schothorst et al. 2005). To our knowledge, there are no known side effects if cholesterol is excluded from the diets.
Vitamin and mineral mix
Vitamin and mineral contents follow AIN-93 recommendations and are specified in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. The carbohydrate component that is used as a carrier for the vitamin provides 40 kcal/kg of energy, which has been taken into account for calculating the carbohydrate energy contribution and total energy content (Table 1).
Polyphenols and carotenoids
The oils that are used contain no carotenoids. Sunflower oil contains 1 mg polyphenols per 100 g oil (De Leonardis et al. 2003), according to the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) Phenol Explorer Database (INRA 2009). This results in 0.3 mg of polyphenols/kg diet (3 × 10−5%), which is considered to be a negligible amount. Sunflower oil contains 41.08 mg/100 g of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) (US Department of Agriculture and Service 2010).
Performance in mice
Using BIOsd during maintenance, similarly to the use of other purified diets, the mice initially lost some weight, as a consequence of the diet switch. After this, the mice displayed a fully normal development and behavior. This was also the case for rats (data not shown).
The emphasis on a purified diet to reduce experimental variation becomes more and more important due to the use of new technologies such as genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, where small differences can be of major significance for interpretation of the data. But enhanced standardization of general used diets is still necessary for the discovery of effects of phytoestrogens as a powerful variable. Phytoestrogen content of equal open-formula diets can differ up to threefold depending on mill date and use of different commodities (Thigpen et al. 1999). Genistein, a phytoestrogen present in soy for example, displays estrogen receptor activation properties, which are an unwanted effect in dietary studies (Ren et al. 2001). Not only the protein fraction, but also the fat fraction can contain phytoestrogens. Traditional diets often contain soybean oil for its adequate (n-6)/(n-3) ratio. Furthermore, for a proper health and physiological state of the rodents, general rules for n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and P/S ratio exclude usage of, for instance, palm oil as sole dietary fatty acid ingredient due to a (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of 25:1, which is considered to increase the probability of a number of diseases (Simopoulos 2002).
As many partners are interested in the use of a high-fat diet, we also propose a high-fat diet based on the BIOsd, in which a part of the carbohydrate content of wheat starch will be replaced by fat to mimic average daily western human intake (40 en% fat, 4,700 kcal/kg).
The initial studies that were performed, and those that are still ongoing, show that the diet can be used for maintenance. We have not examined long-term or trans-generational effects, and therefore at present, we do not advise to use the diet as a standard diet in breeding unless further tested. If used during breeding, we recommend to mesh the diet into porridge for easy access for the dams as the BIOsd is harder than standard chow (Table 4); however, it has been reported that this is not necessary for mice post-weaning (Koopman et al. 1989). Indeed, as the data shows, it is adequate for maintenance.
The authors would like to thank Sven Alferink (Wageningen University) for technical assistance. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7 2007-2013 under grant agreement no 244995. We would also like to thank the Mitofood (COST Action FA 0602) for making the formulation of this diet possible.
Conflict of interest
No conflict of interest or commercial interest is declared by the authors.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
- Barnard DE, Lewis SM, Teter BB, Thigpen JE (2009) Open- and closed-formula laboratory animal diets and their importance to research. J Am Assoc Lab Anim 48:709–713Google Scholar
- Baur JA, Pearson KJ, Price NL, Jamieson HA, Lerin C, Kalra A, Prabhu VV, Allard JS, Lopez-Lluch G, Lewis K, Pistell PJ, Poosala S, Becker KG, Boss O, Gwinn D, Wang M, Ramaswamy S, Fishbein KW, Spencer RG, Lakatta EG, Le Couteur D, Shaw RJ, Navas P, Puigserver P, Ingram DK, de Cabo R, Sinclair DA (2006) Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet. Nature 444(7117):337–342PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bourre J-M, Francois M, Youyou A, Dumont O, Piciotti M, Pascal G, Durand G (1989) The effects of dietary α-linolenic acid on the composition of nerve membranes, enzymatic activity, amplitude of electrophysiological parameters, resistance to poisons and performance of learning tasks in rats. J Nutr 119(12):1880–1892PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Daniel H, Dieck HT (2004) Nutrient-gene interactions: a single nutrient and hundreds of target genes (Biological Chemistry). Biol Chem 385(7):571–583PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- De Leonardis A, Macciola V, Di Rocco A (2003) Oxidative stabilization of cold-pressed sunflower oil using phenolic compounds of the same seeds. J Sci Food Agr 83:523–528View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Du F, Higginbotham DA, White BD (2000) Food intake, energy balance and serum leptin concentrations in rats fed low-protein diets. J Nutr 130(3):514–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Friedrich M, Petzke KJ, Raederstorff D, Wolfram S, Klaus S (2011) Acute effects of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) from green tea on oxidation and tissue incorporation of dietary lipids in mice fed a high fat diet. Int J Obes. doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.136 (in press)
- INRA (2009) Phenol-Explorer; Database on polyphenol content in foods. http://www.phenol-explorer.eu/. Accessed 28 Oct 2010
- Isken F, Klaus S, Petzke KJ, Loddenkemper C, Pfeiffer AFH, Weickert MO (2010) Impairment of fat oxidation under high- vs. low-glycemic index diet occurs before the development of an obese phenotype. Am J Phys Endoc M 298(2):E287–E295Google Scholar
- Keijer J, van Helden YGJ, Bunschoten A, van Schothorst EM (2010) Transcriptome analysis in benefit–risk assessment of micronutrients and bioactive food components. Mol Nutr Food Res 54(2):240–248PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klaus S, Pultz S, Thone-Reineke C, Wolfram S (2005) Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates diet-induced obesity in mice by decreasing energy absorption and increasing fat oxidation. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 29(6):615–623View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Koopman JP, Scholten PM, Roeleveld PC, Velthuizen YW, Beynen AC (1989) Hardness of diet pellets and its influence on growth of pre-weaned and weaned mice. Zeitschrift für Versuchstierkunde 32(2):71–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee JH, Fukumoto M, Nishida H, Ikeda I, Sugano M (1989) The interrelated effects of n-6/n-3 and polyunsaturated/saturated ratios of dietary fats on the regulation of lipid metabolism in rats. J Nutr 119(12):1893–1899PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leiter L (2009) Phytoestrogens—uninvited, troublesome guests in scientific research. http://www.researchdiets.com/pdf/Product%20Sheets/phytoestrogens_3%20page.pdf
- National Research Council (1995) Nutrient requirements of laboratory animals 4th Rev ednGoogle Scholar
- Ortmann S, Prinzler J, Klaus S (2003) Self-selected macronutrient diet affects energy and glucose metabolism in brown fat-ablated mice. Obes Res 11(12):1536–1544PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Patsouris D, Reddy JK, Muller M, Kersten S (2006) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha mediates the effects of high-fat diet on hepatic gene expression. Endocrinology 147(3):1508–1516PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reeves PG (1997) Components of the AIN-93 diets as improvements in the AIN-76A diet. J Nutr 127(5):838S–841SPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reeves PG, Nielsen FH, Fahey GC Jr (1993) AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J Nutr 123(11):1939–1951PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ren MQ, Kuhn G, Wegner J, Chen J (2001) Isoflavones, substances with multi-biological and clinical properties. Eur J Nutr 40(4):135–146PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schmidt HL, Metges CC (1985) Variations of the natural isotope abundance in the diet: causes of artifacts or the base of new possibilities in stable isotope tracer work? Clin Nutr Metab Res Proc 7th congr ESPEN, pp 156–168Google Scholar
- Simopoulos AP (2002) The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 56(8):365–379PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thigpen JE, Setchell KDR, Ahlmark KB, Locklear J, Spahr T, Caviness GF, Goelz MF, Haseman JK, Newbold RR, Forsythe DB (1999) Phytoestrogen content of purified, open-and closed-formula laboratory animal diets. Lab Anim Sci 49(5):530–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
- US Department of Agriculture, Service A. R (2010) USDA national nutrient database for standard reference. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/
- Van Schothorst EM, Franssen-van Hal N, Schaap MM, Pennings J, Hoebee B, Keijer J (2005) Adipose gene expression patterns of weight gain suggest counteracting steroid hormone synthesis. Obesity 13(6):1031–1041View ArticleGoogle Scholar