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Table 4 Processes of phenotypic flexibility modulated by OPGLTT

From: Phenotypic flexibility as a measure of health: the optimal nutritional stress response test

Organ system Process Direction (↑, ↓, –) Disturbed
Gut Incretin production T2DM
Satiety hormone production ↑ and ↓ Obesity
Adipose tissue Lipolysis T2DM
Adipokine production T2DM
Systemic stress Insulin sensitivity T2DM, MetS, obesity
Oxidative stress T2DM
Inflammation Slight ↑ T2DM, MetS
ER stress  
Metabolic flexibility Obesity
Liver β-oxidation Obesity
Ketogenesis  
Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis  
Lipoprotein production T2DM, MetS
TCA cycle  
Kidney Urea cycle  
Vasculature Blood pressure regulation T2DM
NO formation  
Adhesion T2DM
Pancreas Insulin secretion T2DM, obesity
Brain Endocrine response  
Neurotransmitters and precursors  
  1. MetS metabolic syndrome, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus