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Table 6 Overview of modulated processes for OGTT, OLTT and OPGLTT

From: Phenotypic flexibility as a measure of health: the optimal nutritional stress response test

Organ system Process OGTT OLTT OPTT OPGLTT
Gut Host–microbe interaction     
Defense against pathogens     
Gastrointestinal functioning     
Absorption     
Intestinal integrity     
Incretin production a  a
Satiety hormone production    a
Gut-mediated inflammation  a   
Adipose tissue Lipolysis a a a
Adipose insulin sensitivity     
Expandability     
Lipokine and adipokine production a  a
Macrophage infiltration     
Systemic stress response Systemic insulin sensitivity a  a
Oxidative stress a a  a
Nitrosative stress a a   
Chronic low-grade inflammation a  a
Metabolic flexibility  a  a
ER stress   
Muscle Protein metabolism a    
Muscle tissue injury control    
Muscle insulin sensitivity     
Liver β-oxidation a   a
Citric acid cycle    
Ketogenesis a   
Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis a   
Purine degradation    
Hepatic protein metabolism     
Lipoprotein production a a  a
Bile production a    
Hepatic fat metabolism     
Fibrosis and inflammation     
Hepatic insulin sensitivity     
Hepatic injury control  a   
Kidney (Re)absorption    
Urea cycle   
Vasculature Blood pressure regulation a a  a
NO formation   
Vascular flexibility  a   
Adhesion a a  a
Complement system     
Coagulation system     
Pancreas α-Cell     
β-Cell a a  a
Brain Endocrine response    
Secondary messengers     
Mental performance     
Appetite     
HPA axis a    
Neurotransmitters and precursors   
  1. aDifferential response between healthy and sub-optimal healthy subjects