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Table 1 Association between fiber intake and type 2 diabetes and related traits in MDCS

From: Several type 2 diabetes-associated variants in genes annotated to WNT signaling interact with dietary fiber in relation to incidence of type 2 diabetes

   Quintiles of fiber intake   
  Total Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Βeta (SE) or HR (CI) P valuea
N 26,905 5381 5381 5381 5381 5381   
Sex (% males) 10,429 (39 %) 3039 (57 %) 2426 (45 %) 2062 (38 %) 1635 (30 %) 1267 (24 %)   
Age (years) 58.0 ± 7.6 57.4 ± 7.5 57.7 ± 7.7 58.2 ± 7.7 58.3 ± 7.7 58.3 ± 7.5   
Incident type 2 diabetes 3132 (10.6 %) 666 (11.3 %) 650 (11.0 %) 670 (11.4 %) 564 (9.56 %) 582 (10.9 %) 0.98 (0.96–1.01) 0.17
BMI (kg/m2) 25.6 ± 3.9 25.5 ± 3.9 25.6 ± 3.8 25.8 ± 3.9 25.7 ± 3.9 25.5 ± 4.0 0.02 (0.02) 0.22
FPG (mmol/L)b 5.64 ± 0.82 5.81 ± 1.04 5.68 ± 0.78 5.63 ± 0.79 5.58 ± 0.73 5.54 ± 0.72 −0.03 (0.008) 0.0001
FPI (pmol/L)b 46.5 ± 46.2 50.7 ± 43.5 46.2 ± 33.6 47.5 ± 50.5 45.1 ± 59.3 43.9 ± 38.9 −0.95 (0.48) 6 × 10−07
HOMA-IRb 1.60 ± 1.22 1.75 ± 1.32 1.64 ± 1.06 1.65 ± 1.62 1.53 ± 1.04 1.48 ± 1.00 −0.06 (0.01) 6 × 10−09
HbA1C (%)b 4.81 ± 0.49 4.89 ± 0.58 4.82 ± 0.45 4.82 ± 0.53 4.80 ± 0.43 4.76 ± 0.47 −0.02 (0.005) 0.00002
HbA1C (mmol/mol)b 39.7 ± 5.00 40.5 ± 5.88 39.8 ± 4.56 39.8 ± 5.36 39.5 ± 4.38 39.2 ± 4.75 −0.22 (0.05) 0.00002
Fiber (g/1000 Kcal) 9.03 ± 2.72 5.77 ± 0.81 7.47 ± 0.36 8.69 ± 0.36 10.09 ± 0.48 13.13 ± 2.19   
  1. Data are means ± SD unless otherwise stated. Number of individuals included in MDCS cohort, n = 26,905
  2. HR hazard ratio, BMI body mass index, FPG fasting plasma glucose, FPI fasting plasma insulin, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, HbA 1C glycated hemoglobin
  3. aAdjusted for age, sex, BMI, total energy intake, dietary assessment method, season, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, and education where appropriate
  4. bData available only for the MDC-CC, n = 5499