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Table 2 Fasting levels of markers that were significantly different between 20 healthy male subjects and 20 type 2 diabetic male subjects, related to adipose tissue, vasculature, kidney, muscle, liver, pancreas, and systemic stress

From: Multi-parameter comparison of a standardized mixed meal tolerance test in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects: the PhenFlex challenge

  Parameter Unit Healthy T2D
Adipose tissue Leptin ng/mL 2.96 (2.7) 6.53 (4.2)**
Adipose IR index 2.80 (0.12) 3.86 (0.12)***
Vasculature sICAM-1 ng/mL 247 (38) 299 (56)*
Kidney Ornithine RC 0.14 (0.02) 0.18 (0.04)*
1,5-anhydroglucitol RC 1.10 (0.2) 0.44 (0.2)***
Muscle Leucine RC 1.16 (0.2) 1.33 (0.2)*
Valine RC 1.88 (0.3) 2.16 (0.2)*
4-Oxoproline RC 0.019 (0.006) 0.011 (0.005)**
Glycine RC 1.09 (0.2) 0.91 (0.2)*
Glutamate RC 0.28 (0.1) 0.49 (0.2)**
Liver ALAT U/L 22.3 (9.8) 38.0 (23.8)***
GGT U/L 21.4 (8.9) 36.7 (16.6)***
2-Hydroxybutanoic acid RC 0.078 (0.03) 0.13 (0.04)***
Liver IR index 902 (565) 3348 (1312)***
Pancreas Insulin ng/mL 0.31 (0.2) 0.60 (0.2)***
HOMA-B % 94 (62) 50 (24)**
Systemic stress HbA1c ng/mL 95.0 (23) 127 (29)**
HOMA-IR 2.23 (1.4) 8.27 (3.2)***
Glucose mmol/L 5.4 (0.5) 10.2 (1.7)***
Fructose RC 0.034 (0.01) 0.059 (0.02)***
Mannose RC 0.33 (0.05) 0.58 (0.1)***
CRP ng/mL 567 (395) 1342 (1028)*
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD
  2. RC relative concentrations against internal standard
  3. *Significant differences between fasting values healthy subjects and T2D (p value < 0.05);
  4. **Significant differences between fasting values healthy subjects and T2D (p value < 0.01);
  5. ***Significant differences between fasting values healthy subjects and T2D (p value < 0.001)