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Table 1 List of studies reporting candidate biomarkers for Allium vegetable consumption

From: Biomarkers of food intake for Allium vegetables

Food items Study design Number of subjects Analytical method Biospecimen Candidate biomarkers Primary reference(s)
Garlic
Onion
Human single meal study
Human single meal study
NA GC-MS Urine (24 h) N-acetyl-S- (2-carboxypropyl) cysteine (CPMA)
S-allylmercapturic acid (ALMA)
N-acetyl-S- (2-carboxypropyl) cysteine (CPMA)
S-allylmercapturic acid (ALMA)*
[19]
Garlic Human single meal study 6 GC-MS Urine (24 h) S-allylmercapturic acid (ALMA) [21]
Garlic Placebo-controlled intervention study
Cross-sectional study of Finnish vegans and controls
101
20
GC-MS Urine (24 h)
Urine (24 h)
S-allylmercapturic acid (ALMA)
S-allylmercapturic acid (ALMA)
[22]
Fresh garlic Randomized controlled parallel trial NA GC MS/MS Urine (24 h) S-allylmercapturic acid (ALMA) [20]
Aged garlic extract Human single meal study 1 HPLC-MS Blood plasma
Breath
S-allyl cysteine (SAC)
Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS)
[18]
Fresh garlic Human single meal study 7 GC-MS Breath Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) [28]
Fresh garlic Human single meal study 1 GC-MS Breath Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) [30]
Garlic Human single meal study 6 GC-MS Breath Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) [31]
Raw garlic Human single meal study 1 PTR-MS Breath Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) [29]
Raw garlic Human single meal study 12 GC-MS/O Urine (24 h) Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) [33]
HRGC-MS   Allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO)
Allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2)
  1. Abbreviation: PTR-MS protontransfer-reaction mass spectrometry, GC-MS/O gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry, HRGC-MS high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, NA not available
  2. *No data is shown