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Table 2 Summary of the selected candidate BFIs of Allium vegetables and the excluded biomarkers and reasons for inclusion or exclusion

From: Biomarkers of food intake for Allium vegetables

Food item Metabolites Biofluid locations Reason for inclusion or exclusion Selected for the systematic validation as BFI References
Garlic ALMA Urine Specificity, suitable post-prandial kinetics, and dose-response Yes [19,20,21,22]
AMS Breath Specificity, suitable post-prandial kinetics, and dose-response Yes [18, 28,29,30,31]
AMS Urine Specificity, suitable post-prandial kinetics, and dose-response Yes [33]
AMS Breast milk Uncommon sampling No [34]
AMSO Urine Specificity, suitable post-prandial kinetics Yes [33]
AMSO2 Urine Specificity, suitable post-prandial kinetics Yes [33]
SAC Plasma Probably specific, need for further investigation Yes [18]
DADS Urine Too low concentration, scarce information on kinetics No [27]
DADS Breath Too low concentration, too short half-life No [18, 29, 30, 32]
DAS Urine Too low concentration, scarce information on kinetics No [27]
DAS Breath Too low concentration, too short half-life No [18, 29, 30]
DMS Breath Too low concentration, too short half-life No [29]
DMDS Breath Unspecific, too low concentration No [30]
DMDS Urine Unspecific, too low concentration No [27, 33]
DMTS Urine Unspecific, too low concentration No [27]
Acetone Breath Unspecific, too variable background No [28, 29]
Organo-selenium compounds Breath Too low concentration No [30]
Methanethiol Breath Too low concentration, too short half-life No [31]
Allyl mercaptan Breath Too low concentration, too short half-life No [31, 32]
AMDS Breath Too low concentration, too short half-life No [29,30,31]
AMDS Urine Only detectable after the consumption of a high dose (30 g garlic) No [33]
ADS Breath Too low concentration, too short half-life No [31]
DATS Breath Too low concentration, too short half-life No [29, 30]
Hexahydrohippuric acid Urine Unspecific No [19]
2-propenethiol Breath Too low concentration, too short half-life No [30]
Onion N-acetyl-S-(1Z)-propenyl-cysteine- sulfoxide Urine Probably specific, identification level II, need for further investigation No [48]
Quercetin Plasma/urine Unspecific No [40, 42, 43, 56,57,58,59,60,61]
Quercetin-3′-sulphate Plasma/urine Unspecific No [41]
Quercetin-3-glucuronide Plasma/urine Unspecific No [41]
Quercetin-4′-glucuronide Plasma/urine Unspecific No [47]
Quercetin diglucuronide Plasma/urine Unspecific No [41]
Isorhamnetin Plasma/urine Unspecific No [40, 43, 56, 59, 61]
Isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide Plasma/urine Unspecific No [41]
Isorhamnetin-4′-glucuronide Plasma/urine Unspecific No [47]
Tamarixetin Plasma/urine Unspecific No [59, 61]
Kaempferol Plasma/urine Unspecific No [56, 57]
Flavonol metabolites Plasma/urine Unspecific No [40, 43, 46]
Dimethyl sulfone Urine* Unspecific No [49]
3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid Urine* Unspecific No [49]
Onion and garlic CPMA Urine Probably specific, needs further investigation Yes [19]
Shallot Quercetin Plasma Unspecific No [54]
  1. Abbreviation: ALMA S-allylmercapturic acid, AMS allyl methyl sulfide, AMSO allyl methyl sulfoxide, AMSO2 allyl methyl sulfone, CPMA N-acetyl-S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteine, SAC S-allylcysteine, DADS diallyl disulfide, DAS diallyl sulfide, DMDS dimethyl disulfide, AM allyl mercaptan, AMDS allyl methyl disulfide, ADS allyl disulfide, DATS diallyl trisulfide, DMS dimethyl sulfide, DMTS dimethyl trisulfide
  2. *Data from animal study