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Table 1 Studies reporting associations between consumption and potential candidate food intake biomarkers for nuts

From: Biomarkers of food intake for nuts and vegetable oils: an extensive literature search

Dietary factor [reference] Study design Number of subjects Analytical method Sample type Discriminating metabolites/candidate biomarkers
Walnutsa [20] Acute study 8 GC Large TAG-rich lipoproteins α-Linolenic acid
Walnutsa [21] Acute study 20 GC LDL cholesteryl esters α-Linolenic acid
Walnuts [22] Acute study 40 LC-MS Urine Urolithin B glucuronide
Walnutsa [23] Acute study 16 HPLC Urine Urolithin A
Walnuts [24] Acute study 8 Spectro-photometry Urine 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid
Walnuts [25] Acute study 3 HPLC Urine 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid
Walnuts [26] Acute study 31 LC-MS Serum 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid
Walnutsa [12] Sustained intervention 18 GC Serum cholesteryl esters α-Linolenic acid
Walnutsa [27] Sustained intervention 16 GC Plasma α-Linolenic acid
Walnutsa [28] Sustained intervention 21 GC Plasma TAG α-Linolenic acid
Walnutsa [29] Sustained intervention 55 GC LDL cholesteryl esters α-Linolenic acid
Walnutsa [30] Sustained intervention 18 GC Plasma α-Linolenic acid
Walnuts [31] Sustained intervention 10 TLC LDL proteins α-Linolenic acid
Walnutsa [32] Sustained intervention 40 GC Serum cholesteryl esters α-Linolenic acid
Walnuts [33] Sustained intervention 90 NR Erythrocytes α-Linolenic acid
Walnutsa [34] Sustained intervention 10 GC Blood drops α-Linolenic acid
Walnuts [35] Sustained intervention 39 NR Erythrocytes α-Linolenic acid
Walnutsa [36] Sustained intervention 25 GC Erythrocytes Linolenic acid
Walnuts [37] Sustained intervention 50 GC Erythrocytes α-Linolenic acid
Walnuts [38] Sustained intervention 25 NR Plasma phospholipids α-Linolenic acid
Walnutsa [39] Sustained intervention 21 GC Erythrocytes Linolenic acid
Walnuts [40] Sustained intervention 283 GC Erythrocytes α-Linolenic acid
Walnutsa [41] Sustained intervention 18 GC Plasma α-Linolenic acid
Walnuts [42] Sustained intervention 25 GC-FID Plasma phospholipids α-Linolenic acid
Walnuts [43] Sustained intervention 109 GC-FID Serum α-Linolenic acid
Walnutsa [44] Sustained intervention 45 GC-FID Erythrocytes α-Linolenic acid
Walnutsa [45] Sustained intervention 20 NR Erythrocytes α-Linolenic acid
Walnutsa [46] Sustained intervention 40 GC Plasma α-Linolenic acid
Walnutsa [47] Sustained intervention 63 LC-MS Plasma / Urine / Prostate gland Urolithin A glucuronide, urolithin B glucuronide (only in prostate gland)
Walnuts [48] Sustained intervention 10 LC-MS Urine / Feces Urolithin A, urolithin A 3-glucuronide (only urine), isourolithin A, isourolithin A 3-glucuronide (only urine), urolithin B, urolithin B glurcuronide (only urine), urolithin C (only feces)
Walnutsa [49] Sustained intervention 20 LC-MS Urine / Feces Urolithin A, urolithin A glucuronide (only urine), isourolithin A, isourolithin A glucuronide (only urine), urolithin B, urolithin B glucuronide (only urine), urolithin C (only feces)
Walnuts [50] Observational study 107 LC-MS Urine 5-Hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid
Walnutsa [51] Observational study 381 LC-MS Urine Urolithin A glucuronide / sulfate / sulfoglucuronide, urolithin B glucuronide, urolithin C sulfate, urolithin C glucuronide, hydroxyindoleacetic acid sulfate
Brazil nuts [52] Acute study 3 LC-MS Urine Selenium
Brazil nuts [53] Acute study 2 LC-ICP-MS Urine Selenium
Brazil nuts [54] Sustained intervention 15 AAS Plasma Selenium
Brazil nuts [55] Sustained intervention 59 AAS Plasma Selenium
Brazil nuts [56] Sustained intervention 81 AAS Plasma / Erythrocytes Selenium
Brazil nuts [57] Sustained intervention 37 AAS Plasma / Erythrocytes Selenium
Brazil nuts [58] Sustained intervention 91 AAS Plasma Selenium
Brazil nuts [59] Sustained intervention 91 ICP-MS Plasma Selenium
Brazil nuts [60] Sustained intervention 82 AAS Plasma / Erythrocytes / Urine (24 h) / Hair / Nails Selenium
Brazil nuts [61] Sustained intervention 31 AAS Plasma Selenium
Brazil nuts [62] Sustained intervention 32 NS Plasma Selenium
Brazil nuts [63] Observational study 155 ICP-MS Blood Selenium
Brazil nuts [64] Observational study 219 ICP-MS Whole-blood Selenium
Almonds [65] Sustained intervention 16 HPLC Plasma / Erythrocytes α-Tocopherol
Almonds [66] Sustained intervention 20 HPLC Plasma α-Tocopherol
Almonds [67] Sustained intervention 60 HPLC Serum α-Tocopherol
Almonds [68] Sustained intervention 24 NR Plasma α-Tocopherol
Almonds [69] Sustained intervention 65 HPLC-FLD Plasma α-Tocopherol
Almonds [70] Sustained intervention 22 HPLC Plasma α-Tocopherol
Almonds [71] Sustained intervention 60 HPLC Plasma α-Tocopherol
Almonds [72] Sustained intervention 45 HPLC Plasma α-Tocopherol
Hazelnuts [73] Sustained intervention 48 HPLC Plasma α-Tocopherol
Hazelnutsa [74] Sustained intervention 21 HPLC Serum / Isolated LDL α-Tocopherol
Hazelnuts [75] Sustained intervention 72 HPLC Plasma α-Tocopherol
Pistachios [77] Sustained intervention 28 GC Serum β-Sitosterol
Pistachiosa [78] Sustained intervention 28 HPLC Serum Lutein
Pistachiosa [76] Sustained intervention 54 LC-MS Plasma Lutein-zeaxanthin
Mixed nuts (walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts) [79] Sustained intervention 27 GC Plasma α-Linolenic acid
Mixed nuts (walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts) [80] Sustained intervention 375 GC Plasma α-Linolenic acid
Mixed nuts (walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts) [81] Sustained intervention 42 LC-MS Urine Urolithin A glucuronide / sulfate / sulfoglucuronide, hydroxyindoleacetic acid
Mixed nuts (walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts) [82] Sustained intervention 41 LC-MS Urine Urolithin A, urolithin B
Mixed nuts (walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts) a [83] Sustained intervention 47 LC-MS Plasma Urolithin A glucuronide
  1. AAS atomic absorption spectrometry, FID flame ionization detector, FLD fluorometric detection, GC gas chromatography, HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography, ICP inductively coupled plasma, MS mass spectrometry, NR not reported, TAG triacylglycerides, TLC thin-layer chromatography
  2. aThe study includes other nonrelevant metabolites (included in Additional file 1: Table S1)