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Table 2 Validation scheme of potential food intake biomarkers for nuts

From: Biomarkers of food intake for nuts and vegetable oils: an extensive literature search

Dietary factor [references] Compound/metabolite HMDB ID Sample type Criteria
1 2 3a 3b 4 5 6 7 8
Walnuts [12, 20, 21, 28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45, 27, 46, 79, 80] α-Linolenic acid HMDB0001388 Plasma / serum / erythrocytes N U U U U U U Y U
Walnuts [22, 23, 48, 47, 49, 51, 82, 81, 83] Urolithins: urolithin A (and phase II metabolites), isourolithin A (and phase II metabolites), urolithin B (and phase II metabolites), urolithin C (and phase II metabolites) HMDB0013695 / HMDB0029222 / HMDB0060022 /
HMDB0013696 / HMDB0041787 / HMDB0029218
Urine / plasma N U Y U Y U U Y U
Walnuts [24, 50, 51, 81] 5-Hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid HMDB0000763 Urine / serum N Y Y U Y U U Y U
Almonds/hazelnuts [66,67,68,69,70,71,72] α-Tocopherol HMDB0001893 Plasma / serum / erythrocytes N U U U U U U Y U
Pistachios [77] β-Sitosterol HMDB0000852 Serum N U U U U U U Y U
Pistachios [76, 78] Lutein-zeaxanthin HMDB0003233/HMDB0002789 Plasma / serum N U U U U U U Y U
Brazil nuts [53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61] Selenium HMDB0001349 Urine / plasma N Y Y Y Y U U Y U
  1. HMDB human metabolome database, N no, U unknown, Y yes. Criteria: C1Plausibility, Is the marker compound plausible as a specific BFI for the food or food group?; C2Dose response, Is there a dose-response relationship at relevant intake levels of the targeted food?; C3Time response, Is the biomarker kinetics described adequately to make a wise choice of sample type, frequency and time window?; C3a, single dose; C3b, multiple doses; C4, Robustness, Has the marker been shown to be robust after intake of complex meals reflecting dietary habits of the targeted population?; C5, Reliability, Has the marker been shown to compare well with other markers or questionnaire data for the same food/food group?; C6, Stability, Is the marker chemically and biologically stable during biospecimen collection and storage, making measurements reliable and feasible?; C7, Analytical performance, Are analytical variability (CV%), accuracy, sensitivity and specificity known as adequate for at least one reported analytical method?; C8, Reproducibility, Has the analysis been successfully reproduced in another laboratory?