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Table 3 Studies reporting associations between consumption and potential candidate food intake biomarkers for vegetable oils

From: Biomarkers of food intake for nuts and vegetable oils: an extensive literature search

Dietary factor [reference] Study design Number of subjects Analytical method Sample type Discriminating metabolites/candidate biomarkers
Olive oil [127] Sustained intervention 11 GC-FID Erythrocytes Oleic acid
Olive oil [128] Sustained intervention 12 GC-FID Plasma Oleic acid
Olive oila [129] Sustained intervention 30 GC-FID Plasma Oleic acid
Olive oil [130] Sustained intervention 21 GC-FID Plasma/platelets Oleic acid
Olive oil [131] Sustained intervention 16 GC-FID Erythrocytes Oleic acid
Olive oil Sustained intervention 30 GC-FID Plasma/PBMC Oleic acid
Olive oil, extra virgin [133] Acute study 10 GC Plasma—TAG Oleic acid
Olive oil, pomace and refined [134] Acute study 10 GC Serum—TRL Oleic acid
Olive oil, virgina [135] Acute study 11 UPLC-MS; GC-MS Urine Hydroxytyrosol
Olive oil, different phenolic contenta [136] Acute study 12 GC-MS Urine Hydroxytyrosol, 3-O-methy-hydroxytyrosol
Olive oil, enriched or virgina [137] Acute study 13 UPLC-MS/MS Plasma Hydroxytyrosol sulfate
Olive oil, virgin [138] Acute study 13 UPLC-MS/MS Plasma Hydroxytyrosol sulfate
Olive oil, high phenolic content [139] Acute study 12 UPLC-MS/MS Plasma Hydroxytyrosol sulfate, hydroxytyrosol acetate sulfate
Olive oil, virgin, moderate and high phenolic content [140] Acute study 13 UPLC-MS/MS Plasma Hydroxytyrosol sulfate, hydroxytyrosol acetate sulfate
Olive oil, extra virgin [141] Sustained intervention 10 GC-FID Plasma and cells Oleic acid
Olive oil, extra virgin [142] Sustained intervention 424 GC Plasma Oleic acid
Olive oil, different phenolica compound content [143] Sustained intervention 30 GC-MS Urine Hydroxytyrosol
Olive oil, different phenol contenta [144] Sustained intervention 200 GC-MS Urine Hydroxytyrosol
Olive oil, high-phenol vs low-phenol extra virgina [145] Sustained intervention 10 GC-MS Urine Hydroxytyrosol
Olive oils, different phenolic contenta [146] Sustained intervention 30 HPLC Urine Hydroxytyrosol
Olive oil, different phenolic contenta [147] Sustained intervention 38 GC-MS Urine Hydroxytyrosol
Olive oil, refined, common and virgina [148] Sustained intervention 33 HPLC Urine Hydroxytyrosol
Olive oil, extra virgina [149] Sustained intervention 20 HPLC-MS Plasma Hydroxytyrosol
Olive oil, extra virgin [80] Sustained intervention 750 GC-MS Urine Hydroxytyrosol
Olive oil, different phenolic compound contenta [150] Sustained intervention 28 GC-MS Urine Hydroxytyrosol, O-methylhydroxytyrosol
Olive oil, with different phenolic contentsa [151] Sustained intervention 182 GC-MS/MS Urine Hydroxytyrosol, 3-O-methylhydroxytyrosol
Olive oil, virgin and refineda [152] Sustained intervention 36 HPLC-MS/MS Plasma-LDL Hydroxytyrosol sulfate
Olive oil, virgin, enriched [153] Sustained intervention 33 UHPLC-MS/MS Urine Hydroxytyrosol sulfate
Olive oil, high polyphenol contenta [154] Sustained intervention 51 UHPLC-MS/MS Plasma-HDL Hydroxytyrosol sulfate
Olive oil, virgin, high phenolica [155] Sustained intervention 5 UPLC-MS/MS Urine Hydroxytyrosol sulfate, hydroxytyrosol acetate sulfate
Olive oil, virgin, enriched [156] Sustained intervention 33 UPLC-MS/MS Plasma/urine Hydroxytyrosol sulfate, hydroxytyrosol acetate sulfate
Olive oil, virgin (OO); rapeseed oil (RO); sunflower oil (SO) [157] Sustained intervention 18 GC-FID Plasma Oleic acid (OO, RO), linoleic acid (SO, RO)
Olive oil (OO), canola oil (CO) a [158] Sustained intervention 14 GC-FID Plasma Oleic acid (OO, α-Linolenic acid (CO)
Flaxseed oil [159] Sustained intervention 16 GC-FID Plasma/PBMC α-Linolenic acid
Flaxseed oil [160] Sustained intervention 30 GC-FID Plasma α-Linolenic acid
Flaxseed oil [161] Sustained intervention 46 GC-FID Platelets α-Linolenic acid
Flaxseed oil [162] Sustained intervention 28 GC-FID Plasma α-Linolenic acid
Flaxseed oil [163] Sustained intervention 17 GC-FID Plasma/platelets α-Linolenic acid
Flaxseed oil [164] Sustained intervention 20 GC Plasma/erythrocytes α-Linolenic acid
Flaxseed oil [165] Sustained intervention 51 GC Erythrocytes α-Linolenic acid
Flaxseed oil [166] Sustained intervention 62 GLC Erythrocytes α-Linolenic acid
Flaxseed oil [167] Sustained intervention 86 GC Plasma α-Linolenic acid
Flaxseed oil [168] Sustained intervention 34 GC Plasma α-Linolenic acid
Flaxseed oil [169] Sustained intervention 98 GC Erythrocytes α-Linolenic acid
Flaxseed oil [170] Sustained intervention 26 GC-FID Plasma α-Linolenic acid
Flaxseed oil [171] Sustained intervention 37 GC Erythrocytes α-Linolenic acid
Flaxseed oil [172] Sustained intervention 15 GC-FID Serum α-Linolenic acid
Flaxseed oil (FO); sunflower oil (SO) [173] Sustained intervention 10 GC-FID Platelets α-Linolenic acid (FO); linoleic acid (SO)
Rapeseed oil [177] Sustained intervention 40 GC-FID Plasma α-Linolenic acid
Canola oila [174] Sustained intervention 14 GC-FID Breastmilk α-Linolenic acid
Canola oil [175] Sustained intervention 130 GC-FID Plasma α-Linolenic acid
Canola oil [176] Sustained intervention 130 GC-FID Plasma α-Linolenic acid
Canola oil (CO); sunflower oil (SO) a [178] Sustained intervention 8 GC-FID Plasma α-Linolenic acid (CO); linoleic acid (SO)
Canola oil (CO); sunflower oil (SO) [179] Sustained intervention 8 GC-FID Platelets α-Linolenic acid (CO); linoleic acid (SO)
Sunflower oil [180] Sustained intervention 37 GC Plasma-CE/ASAT Linoleic acid
  1. ASAT abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, CE cholesterol esters, FID flame ionization detector, GC gas chromatography, GLC gas-liquid chromatography, HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography, MS mass spectrometry, MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry, PBMC peripheral blood mononuclear cell, TAG triacylglycerides, UHPLC ultra-high performance liquid chromatography
  2. aThe study includes other nonrelevant metabolites (included in Additional file 1: Table S2)