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Table 4 Validation scheme of potential food intake biomarkers for vegetable oils

From: Biomarkers of food intake for nuts and vegetable oils: an extensive literature search

Dietary factor [references] Compound/metabolite HMDB ID Sample type Criteria
1 2 3a 3b 4 5 6 7 8
Olive oil [128, 133, 134, 141, 142, 157, 158] Oleic acid HMDB0000207 Plasma/blood cells N U Y Y Y U U Y U
Olive oil, (extra) virgin [80, 135, 136, 144,145,146,147,148,149,150, 143, 151] Hydroxytyrosol HMDB0005784 Urine/plasma Y Y Y U Y U U Y U
Olive oil, (extra) virgin [137, 138, 153,154,155, 152, 156] Hydroxytyrosol sulfate Urine/plasma Y Y Y U Y Y U Y U
Olive oil, (extra) virgin [139, 140, 155, 156] Hydroxytyrosol acetate sulfate Urine/plasma Y U Y U Y U U Y U
Olive oil, (extra) virgin [136, 150, 151] 3-O-Methylhydroxytyrosol Urine Y Y U U Y U U Y U
Flaxseed/linseed oil [160,161,162,163,164,165] α-Linolenic acid HMDB0001388 Plasma/serum/erythrocytes/platelets N Y U Y Y U U Y U
Rapeseed/canola oil [158, 175,176,177,178, 174, 179] α-Linolenic acid HMDB0001388 Plasma/platelets/breast milk N Y Y U Y U U Y U
Sunflower oil [157, 173, 179, 178, 180] Linoleic acid HMDB0000673 Plasma/platelets/subcutaneous adipose tissue N U U U Y U U Y U
  1. HMDB human metabolome database, N no, U unknown, Y yes. Criteria: C1Plausibility, Is the marker compound plausible as a specific BFI for the food or food group?; C2Dose response, Is there a dose-response relationship at relevant intake levels of the targeted food?; C3Time response, Is the biomarker kinetics described adequately to make a wise choice of sample type, frequency and time window?; C3a, single dose; C3b, multiple doses; C4, Robustness, Has the marker been shown to be robust after intake of complex meals reflecting the dietary habits of the targeted population?; C5, Reliability, Has the marker been shown to compare well with other markers or questionnaire data for the same food/food group?; C6, Stability, Is the marker chemically and biologically stable during biospecimen collection and storage, making measurements reliable and feasible?; C7, Analytical performance, Are analytical variability (CV%), accuracy, sensitivity and specificity known as adequate for at least one reported analytical method?; C8, Reproducibility, Has the analysis been successfully reproduced in another laboratory?