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Table 1 Candidate FIBs identified for various fermented foods from the systematic literature search

From: A systematic review to identify biomarkers of intake for fermented food products

Fermented food(s) Discriminant compounds/candidate biomarker levela
Food-level Food group-levelb Fermentation-dependent
Wine • Tartaric acid/tartrate
• Resveratrol and metabolites (trans-piceid, glucuronides and sulfates)
• (Epi)catechin and metabolites (also see cocoa, coffee, tea) • Ethanol
• Ethyl glucuronide
• Ethyl sulfate
• Mannitol
• Gallic acid
Beer • (Iso)xanthohumol
• Iso-alpha-acids (isohumulones)
• 8-Prenylnaringenin
• Alkylresorcinols and metabolites (3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, DHPPA, C17:0 to C21:0 ratio)
• Benzoxazinoids and related compounds (2-hydroxyl-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one, hydroxylated phenylacetamides and derivatives, HHPAA glucuronide and sulfate)
• Ferulic acid, dihydroferulic acid, and derivatives • 2-Ethyl malate
Bread • 2,4-Dihydroxybutanoic acid*
• 2,8-Dihydroxyquinoline glucuronide*
• Methionine
Cocoa • None identified • Caffeine and metabolites (theophylline, 1-methylxanthine, 3-methylxanthine, 7-methylxanthine, paraxanthine, theobromine, AAMU, AMMU)
• 1-, 3-, or 7-Methyluric acid, 1,3-, 1,7-, or 3,7-dimethyluric acid, 1,3,7-trimethyluric acid
• Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acids, quinic acids
• Nicotinic acid, hydroxynicotinic acid
• (Epi)catechin, (epi)catechin glucuronide and metabolites (3-hydroxyhippurate, MHPV, MHPV sulfate, glucuronide, 4-hydroxy-5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) valeric acid, 4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyphenyl) valeric acid sulfate, DHPV glucuronide, sulfoglucuronide)
• Acetate/acetic acid
Coffee • Trigonelline
• N-methylpyridinium
• Cyclo(isoleucyl-prolyl)
• Atractyligenin glucuronide
• 2-Furoylglycine
• 4-Ethylguaiacol
• 4-Vinylguaiacol
Teac • C-linked dihydrochalcone and flavanone glucosides • Theabrownins
• Gallic acid
Soyc • None identified • Pinitol
• Isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, glycitein), glycoside-enriched
• Aglycone-enriched isoflavones and certain 4′ and 7′ isoflavone metabolites
• Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine
• Vitamin B12
• Indole-3-lactic acid
• 4-Methylspinacemine
• Menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2)
Cheese • Isovalerylglutamic acid
• Isovalerylglycine
• Triglylglycine
• Isobutyrylglycine
• Pentadecanoic acid (C15:0)
• Heptadecanoic acid (C17:0)
• 10Z-Heptadecenoic acid (C17:1)
• Myristoyl-sphingomyelin SM(d18:1/14:0)
• Lactose
• Galactitol
• Galactonate
• Galactono-1,5-lactone
• Galactose
• 3-Phenyllactic acid
• Methionine
• Lactic acid
Yoghurt • None identified • Indole-3-lactic acid, indole-3-acetaldehyde, indole-3-propionic acid
  1. AAMU 5-acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil, AMMU 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil, DHPV 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone, DHPPA 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid, HHPAA 2-hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide, LAB lactic acid bacteria, MHPV 3′-methoxy-4′-hydroxyphenylvalerolactone
  2. aWherever possible, the raw material from which the metabolite is derived from, the chemical class, or the fermentation or metabolic process by which the metabolite is generated from, is indicated in square brackets. A full list of references from which these metabolites were derived is provided in Additional Files 3 and 4. The specificity of food-level FIBs for each fermented food (or raw material) was verified through food database searches. Where specificity could not be confirmed, the metabolite is marked with a “*” and further expanded upon in the text
  3. bA group of foods with a common raw material substrate or characteristic
  4. cPost-fermented tea and fermented soy products