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Table 6 MR analysis of the causal association of plasma vitamin C levels with AD, AD proxy phenotype, and cognitive performance using 10 genetic variants excluding the rs174547 variant

From: Mendelian randomization to evaluate the effect of plasma vitamin C levels on the risk of Alzheimer’s disease

GWAS dataset Method OR/betaa 95% CI P value
IGAP AD IVW 0.94 0.81–1.10 4.64E−01
Weighted median 1.02 0.83–1.24 8.83E−01
MR-Egger 1.09 0.85–1.40 5.07E−01
MR-PRESSO 0.94 0.81–1.10 4.71E−01
UK Biobank AD proxy IVW 0.93 0.88–0.98 1.30E−02
Weighted median 0.92 0.87–0.97 2.00E−03
MR-Egger 0.91 0.84–0.98 1.70E−02
MR-PRESSO 0.93 0.88–0.98 3.41E−02
Maternal AD group from UK Biobank IVW 0.89 0.84–0.94 8.38E−05
Weighted median 0.87 0.82–0.93 3.30E−05
MR-Egger 0.86 0.80–0.93 2.54E−04
MR-PRESSO 0.89 0.85–0.93 1.05E−03
Paternal AD group from UK Biobank IVW 1.01 0.91–1.12 8.25E−01
Weighted median 1.00 0.92–1.10 9.38E−01
MR-Egger 1.00 0.87–1.15 9.95E−01
MR-PRESSO 1.01 0.91–1.12 8.30E−01
Cognitive performance IVW −0.005 [−0.034, 0.025] 0.754
Weighted median −0.013 [−0.051, 0.025] 0.510
MR-Egger −0.004 [−0.054, 0.045] 0.865
MR-PRESSO −0.005 [−0.034, 0.025] 0.761
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, IVW inverse-variance weighted, IGAP International Genomics of Alzheimer’s Project, MR-PRESSO Mendelian randomization pleiotropy residual sum and outlier; the significance of suggestive association between vitamin C levels and AD was at P < 0.05; the significance of statistically significant association between vitamin C levels and AD was at Bonferroni-corrected significance P < 0.05/4 = 0.0125. aOR for AD and AD proxy phenotype, and beta for cognitive performance