World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight fact sheet N 311-updated March 2011 2011, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html.
Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C, Mullany EC, Biryukov S, Abbafati C, Abera SF, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2014;384:766–81.
Serra-Majem L, Bautista-Castano I. Etiology of obesity: two “key issues” and other emerging factors. Nutr Hosp. 2013;28(Suppl 5):32–43.
Crino M, Sacks G, Vandevijvere S, Swinburn B, Neal B. The influence on population weight gain and obesity of the macronutrient composition and energy density of the food supply. Curr Obes Rep. 2015;4:1–10.
Shabana HS. Obesity, more than a ‘cosmetic’ problem. Current knowledge and future prospects of human obesity genetics. Biochem Genet. 2016;54:1–28.
Cao H. Adipocytokines in obesity and metabolic disease. J Endocrinol. 2014;220:T47–59.
Khan M, Joseph F. Adipose tissue and adipokines: the association with and application of adipokines in obesity. Scientifica (Cairo). 2014;2014:328592.
Maury E, Brichard SM. Adipokine dysregulation, adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;314:1–16.
Huh JY, Park YJ, Ham M, Kim JB. Crosstalk between adipocytes and immune cells in adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Mol Cells. 2014;37:365–71.
Feuerer M, Herrero L, Cipolletta D, Naaz A, Wong J, Nayer A, Lee J, Goldfine AB, Benoist C, Shoelson S, Mathis D. Lean, but not obese, fat is enriched for a unique population of regulatory T cells that affect metabolic parameters. Nat Med. 2009;15:930–9.
Kucharska AM, Pyrzak B, Demkow U. Regulatory T cells in obesity. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2015;866:35–40.
Gyllenhammer LE, Lam J, Alderete TL, Allayee H, Akbari O, Katkhouda N, Goran MI. Lower omental t-regulatory cell count is associated with higher fasting glucose and lower beta-cell function in adults with obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24:1274–82.
Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. The metabolic syndrome—a new worldwide definition. Lancet. 2005;366:1059–62.
Schaffler A, Muller-Ladner U, Scholmerich J, Buchler C. Role of adipose tissue as an inflammatory organ in human diseases. Endocr Rev. 2006;27:449–67.
Sam S, Haffner S, Davidson MH, D’Agostino RB Sr, Feinstein S, Kondos G, Perez A, Mazzone T. Relation of abdominal fat depots to systemic markers of inflammation in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:932–7.
Rocha VZ, Folco EJ. Inflammatory concepts of obesity. Int J Inflam. 2011;2011:529061.
Bell DS. Changes seen in gut bacteria content and distribution with obesity: causation or association? Postgrad Med. 2015;127:863–8.
Cani PD, Osto M, Geurts L, Everard A. Involvement of gut microbiota in the development of low-grade inflammation and type 2 diabetes associated with obesity. Gut Microbes. 2012;3:279–88.
Ley RE, Backhed F, Turnbaugh P, Lozupone CA, Knight RD, Gordon JI. Obesity alters gut microbial ecology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11070–5.
John GK, Mullin GE. The gut microbiome and obesity. Curr Oncol Rep. 2016;18:45.
Dahiya DK, Renuka PM, Shandilya UK, Dhewa T, Kumar N, Kumar S, Puniya AK, Shukla P. Gut microbiota modulation and its relationship with obesity using prebiotic fibers and probiotics: a review. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:563.
Sanchez B, Delgado S, Blanco-Miguez A, Lourenco A, Gueimonde M, Margolles A. Probiotics, gut microbiota, and their influence on host health and disease. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017;61
Gauffin Cano P, Santacruz A, Moya A, Sanz Y. Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 ameliorates metabolic and immunological dysfunction in mice with high-fat-diet induced obesity. PLoS One. 2012;7:e41079.
Ji YS, Kim HN, Park HJ, Lee JE, Yeo SY, Yang JS, Park SY, Yoon HS, Cho GS, Franz CM, et al. Modulation of the murine microbiome with a concomitant anti-obesity effect by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus sakei NR28. Benef Microbes. 2012;3:13–22.
Takemura N, Okubo T, Sonoyama K. Lactobacillus plantarum strain no. 14 reduces adipocyte size in mice fed high-fat diet. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010;235:849–56.
Shiby VK, Mishra HN. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods—a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53:482–96.
Wolfe BE, Dutton RJ. Fermented foods as experimentally tractable microbial ecosystems. Cell. 2015;161:49–55.
Tamang JP, Watanabe K, Holzapfel WH. Review: diversity of microorganisms in global fermented foods and beverages. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:377.
Devirgiliis C, Caravelli A, Coppola D, Barile S, Perozzi G. Antibiotic resistance and microbial composition along the manufacturing process of Mozzarella di Bufala Campana. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008;128:378–84.
Zanni E, Laudenzi C, Schifano E, Palleschi C, Perozzi G, Uccelletti D, Devirgiliis C. Impact of a complex food microbiota on energy metabolism in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:621709.
Kobyliak N, Conte C, Cammarota G, Haley AP, Styriak I, Gaspar L, Fusek J, Rodrigo L, Kruzliak P. Probiotics in prevention and treatment of obesity: a critical view. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2016;13:14.
Kim B, Park KY, Ji Y, Park S, Holzapfel W, Hyun CK. Protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG against dyslipidemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;473:530–6.
Orr JS, Kennedy AJ, Hasty AH. Isolation of adipose tissue immune cells. J Vis Exp. 2013:e50707.
Strissel KJ, DeFuria J, Shaul ME, Bennett G, Greenberg AS, Obin MS. T-cell recruitment and Th1 polarization in adipose tissue during diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:1918–25.
Wagner Mackenzie B, Waite DW, Taylor MW. Evaluating variation in human gut microbiota profiles due to DNA extraction method and inter-subject differences. Front Microbiol. 2015;6:130.
Milani C, Hevia A, Foroni E, Duranti S, Turroni F, Lugli GA, Sanchez B, Martin R, Gueimonde M, van Sinderen D, et al. Assessing the fecal microbiota: an optimized ion torrent 16S rRNA gene-based analysis protocol. PLoS One. 2013;8:e68739.
Caporaso JG, Kuczynski J, Stombaugh J, Bittinger K, Bushman FD, Costello EK, Fierer N, Pena AG, Goodrich JK, Gordon JI, et al. QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Nat Methods. 2010;7:335–6.
Edgar RC. Search and clustering orders of magnitude faster than BLAST. Bioinformatics. 2010;26:2460–1.
Quast C, Pruesse E, Yilmaz P, Gerken J, Schweer T, Yarza P, Peplies J, Glockner FO. The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: improved data processing and web-based tools. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:D590–6.
Lozupone C, Knight R. UniFrac: a new phylogenetic method for comparing microbial communities. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:8228–35.
Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD. PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron. 2001;4:9pp.
Tamang JP, Shin DH, Jung SJ, Chae SW. Functional properties of microorganisms in fermented foods. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:578.
Bordoni A, Danesi F, Dardevet D, Dupont D, Fernandez AS, Gille D, Nunes Dos Santos C, Pinto P, Re R, Remond D, et al. Dairy products and inflammation: a review of the clinical evidence. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017;57:2497–525.
Rosa DD, Dias MM, Grzeskowiak LM, Reis SA, Conceicao LL, Peluzio MD. Milk kefir: nutritional, microbiological and health benefits. Nutr Res Rev. 2017:1–15.
Kim DH, Kim H, Jeong D, Kang IB, Chon JW, Kim HS, Song KY, Seo KH. Kefir alleviates obesity and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice by modulation of gut microbiota and mycobiota: targeted and untargeted community analysis with correlation of biomarkers. J Nutr Biochem. 2017;44:35–43.
Choi JW, Kang HW, Lim WC, Kim MK, Lee IY, Cho HY. Kefir prevented excess fat accumulation in diet-induced obese mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2017;81:958–65.
Foligne B, Parayre S, Cheddani R, Famelart MH, Madec MN, Ple C, Breton J, Dewulf J, Jan G, Deutsch SM. Immunomodulation properties of multi-species fermented milks. Food Microbiol. 2016;53:60–9.
Alard J, Lehrter V, Rhimi M, Mangin I, Peucelle V, Abraham AL, Mariadassou M, Maguin E, Waligora-Dupriet AJ, Pot B, et al. Beneficial metabolic effects of selected probiotics on diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice are associated with improvement of dysbiotic gut microbiota. Environ Microbiol. 2016;18:1484–97.
Cano PG, Santacruz A, Trejo FM, Sanz Y. Bifidobacterium CECT 7765 improves metabolic and immunological alterations associated with obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21:2310–21.
Moya-Perez A, Neef A, Sanz Y. Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 reduces obesity-associated inflammation by restoring the lymphocyte-macrophage balance and gut microbiota sstructure in high-fat diet-fed mice. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0126976.
Wajchenberg BL, Giannella-Neto D, da Silva ME, Santos RF. Depot-specific hormonal characteristics of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and their relation to the metabolic syndrome. Horm Metab Res. 2002;34:616–21.
Novotny Nunez I, Maldonado Galdeano C, de Moreno de LeBlanc A, Perdigon G. Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 administration decreases inflammatory cytokines in a diet-induced obese mouse model. Nutrition. 2015;31:1000–7.
Nishimura S, Manabe I, Nagasaki M, Eto K, Yamashita H, Ohsugi M, Otsu M, Hara K, Ueki K, Sugiura S, et al. CD8+ effector T cells contribute to macrophage recruitment and adipose tissue inflammation in obesity. Nat Med. 2009;15:914–20.
Ahmed M, Gaffen SL. IL-17 in obesity and adipogenesis. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2010;21:449–53.
Boi SK, Buchta CM, Pearson NA, Francis MB, Meyerholz DK, Grobe JL, Norian LA. Obesity alters immune and metabolic profiles. New insight from obese-resistant mice on high-fat diet. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24:2140–9.
Ukibe K, Miyoshi M, Kadooka Y. Administration of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 suppresses macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue in diet-induced obese mice. Br J Nutr. 2015;114:1180–7.
Le Barz M, Anhe FF, Varin TV, Desjardins Y, Levy E, Roy D, Urdaci MC, Marette A. Probiotics as complementary treatment for metabolic disorders. Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39:291–303.
Turnbaugh PJ, Backhed F, Fulton L, Gordon JI. Diet-induced obesity is linked to marked but reversible alterations in the mouse distal gut microbiome. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;3:213–23.
Park S, Ji Y, Jung HY, Park H, Kang J, Choi SH, Shin H, Hyun CK, Kim KT, Holzapfel WH. Lactobacillus plantarum HAC01 regulates gut microbiota and adipose tissue accumulation in a diet-induced obesity murine model. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;101:1605–14.
Gauffin-Cano PG, Santacruz A, Trejo FM, Sanz Y. Bifidobacterium CECT 7765 improves metabolic and immunological alterations associated with obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21:2310–21.
Chan YK, Brar MS, Kirjavainen PV, Chen Y, Peng J, Li D, Leung FC, El-Nezami H. High fat diet induced atherosclerosis is accompanied with low colonic bacterial diversity and altered abundances that correlates with plaque size, plasma A-FABP and cholesterol: a pilot study of high fat diet and its intervention with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or telmisartan in ApoE−/− mice. BMC Microbiol. 2016;16:264.
Thomas CM, Versalovic J. Probiotics-host communication: modulation of signaling pathways in the intestine. Gut Microbes. 2010;1:148–63.
Hsiao EY, McBride SW, Hsien S, Sharon G, Hyde ER, McCue T, Codelli JA, Chow J, Reisman SE, Petrosino JF, et al. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Cell. 2013;155:1451–63.
Bjerg AT, Sorensen MB, Krych L, Hansen LH, Astrup A, Kristensen M, Nielsen DS. The effect of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and L. casei W8(R) on blood levels of triacylglycerol is independent of colonisation. Benef Microbes. 2015;6:263–9.
Sonnenburg ED, Smits SA, Tikhonov M, Higginbottom SK, Wingreen NS, Sonnenburg JL. Diet-induced extinctions in the gut microbiota compound over generations. Nature. 2016;529:212–5.
Leinonen R, Akhtar R, Birney E, Bower L, Cerdeno-Tarraga A, Cheng Y, Cleland I, Faruque N, Goodgame N, Gibson R, et al. The European Nucleotide Archive. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:D28–31.